Red 2012/07/31 22:29:44

Black and Red

A History of Communism in African American Culture


The Communist party had its roots in black culture as early as
1919. African Blood Brotherhood leader, Cyril Briggs used his new magazine, the
Crusader to argue that capital was “not divided by prejudice and
nationality”. He continually voiced and
published his belief that trade unions were racist thus oppressing the working
class African American population. He
spoke of Marx and how African Americans could find their home and be taken
seriously within the Communist credo.

The African Blood Brotherhood union began to cooperate with Soviet
alliances allowing men and women to have a platform and voice, in the eyes of
Cyril Briggs. The Communist Party
organized by the Russian Federation declared its stance on the Negro question in
1920 promoting an united social class.
The Communist Party will carry on agitation among Negro workers to unite them
with all class conscious workers.” (Record 20)
The Communist Party capitalized on the growing political consciousness of
Negroes as they continued to migrate to large metropolitan areas.

Marcus Garvey, founder of the Universal Negro Improvement
Association, became infuriated with these actions and thus began to focus on
Briggs’s light skin, constantly calling him a white man who wished to destroy
capital. This conflict came to a head
when Briggs sued for character defamation after numerous attacks verbally by

In 1927, African Americans spoke at the Communist International
Fourth Congress Hearing. Otto Huiswood
argued that blacks could lead the freedom movement for all colored people in his
monumental speech. A year later,
statistics showed the break down of actual Negro membership within the party:
14000 blacks had become red. Lovet Fort
Whiteman, the first African American to study in Moscow in 1924, proposed an
American Negro Labor Congress to help strengthen the working class. In 1928, Siberian, Charles Nasonor and thirty
year old black American Harry Haywood attempted to resolve the conflict between
assimilation and separation with their slogan, “a nation within a nation”,
implying freedom through self determination.
They believed that the Negroes in the South shared a different
psychological make up from years of slavery and torture and had evolved
unknowingly into an untied people.

As the
popularity of the Communist movement spread through black cities, Cyril Briggs
kept a wary eye on white chauvinism within the party. He believed that with the presence of white
power, the newly joined black supporters could not achieve their goals. Blacks needed to be welcomed and not
pitied. They could not strive as a
united people within a racial institution.
Numerous trials followed these accusations as a way to cleanse the
communist party of racial ideas and racist white leaders and to prove to black
supporters that they too belonged in the communist community. They realized that the black social status
was not much different from that of America as a whole; it had a small elite
class a larger middle class of intellectuals and a large working class full of
laborers and sharecroppers. They decided
to focus their energy on the lower class.


The Communist Party within America was to the first to battle and
demonstrate against the Depression hunger era and unemployment. They constantly fought evictions, supported
female equality and defied the social ban on inter racial marriage. The communist party flourished in the ghettos
and slums, especially Harlem. Here was a
party that seemed to have the goal of the working class citizen in mind and was
out in public, being vocal and defiant to white power.

In May of 1935, Howard University held a conference discussing the
concerns of the status of the Negro. It
was there that the National Negro Congress was formed. This newly formed congress signified the
growing alliance between the Communists and the black intellectuals during the
Popular Front Era. The National Negro
Congress participated in organized labor strikes, resistance to fascism and mass
protest tactics against racism. They
fought against the disenfranchisement of the blacks and continually held job
campaigns. It seemed to be meeting the
concerns and problems of the African American population.

organizations united together in 1945: the National Negro Congress, the
International Labor Defense and the National Federation for Constitutional
Liberties. This mergence created the
Civil Rights Congress lead by Communist William Patterson. The Civil Rights Congress fought for civil
rights and defended victims of the Mc McCarthy era during his hunt for Communist

Goals of Communism and
the Race Factor

The UCP, or Untied Communist Party learned form the African Blood
Brothers except in the theory of race relations and racism. The Communists needed to respond to black
ideology to gain this new majority’s support.
And so, the Communist party tried to humanize themselves in their
dealings with African Americans. They
began to fight for reforms and adopted a philosophy of self-determination in the
Black Belt in 1928. (The Black Belt
being the area of the south where slavery had been dominate)

Whiteman believed that blacks saw oppression as stemming from a
race more that a class situation and that this idea helped bond blacks
together. During the years 1928 and 1930
resolutions were made regarding black policy.
In the North the party believed blacks to be the national minority
struggling for social and political equality, while in the South they held a
powerful majority and they had the right to secede if they so desired. They also adopted the credo that racism
strengthened capitalism. They needed to
accept blacks in the party while still allowing them to maintain certain sense
of uniqueness. Up until this point,
Communist activity south of the Mason Dixon line was negligible. In 1931 the party made its first real effort
in the South. They set goals of creating
unions of sharecroppers in Alabama and Louisiana. The Sharecroppers Union was met with violent
protests from racist whites and dissolved in 1936.

The party’s prime aim during the twenties was to create and
cultivate black leaders. By sending such
intellectuals as James W. Ford, vice presidential candidate in 1932, Eugene
Gordon, journalist, and William L. Patterson to Moscow they thought that these
newly trained individuals would come back and assert their leadership roles
within the party.

The party also tried to work with other organizations including
the NAACP during the 1930’s. The
Communist party applauded the changes that organizations had made, yet were not
willing to compromise or change their ways.
They often criticized the leaders of the NAACP quite harshly. During this time the Communist party put its
faith with the Democratic Party, retracting insults they had flung earlier at
Roosevelt. They decided that the elite
and big business corporations headed the Republican Party and felt that the
Democratic Party met more of their needs.
The Party was organized in large urban districts such as New York. Los Angles, Chicago and Detroit were also
homes of the party.

During the 1940’s membership began to dwindle amongst blacks. But with the appearance of Hitler on the
scene, the Communist party began to look patriotic. The National Negro Congress began advocating
equal employment and sought to work with other groups and the national and
community levels. After the war, the
Communist Party focused its attention on the Negro soldier demanding equal
treatment and helped to create the Untied Negro and Allied Veterans of

demanding equal treatment helped create untied negro allied veterans america

The Harlem Renaissance and

Often associated with a
flourishing of art, music and literature the Communist Party found a home in
Harlem during the Depression. They held
a flexible and sophisticated set of aesthetic values made the Party attractive
to many black artists. The Party helped
fund such cultural organizations as the Federal Negro Theatre, which employed
350 people and gave black playwrights a chance to come to life and the Federal
Writers Project that studied the role and history of blacks on the New York
scene. They also funded the Harlem
Community Arts Center, which helped to present a free stage for many of Harlem’s
artists. These projects gave a
tremendous boost to the morale in Harlem.
In 1936 the Communist Party also began action to ensure equality in

Some black intellectuals accused the Communists of funding such
projects as the Federal Writers Project to make sure they only published
revolutionary texts. However, the real
problem lay in the fact that these artistic values struck a chord with the
middle class and intellectuals but not the working class. So they set out to better the schools
creating an organization called the Harlem Committee for Better Schools, which
lasted, form 1935-1950. This group was
made up of parents, teachers, church leaders and community groups and helped to
form alliances with schools in the area.

parents teachers church leaders community groups helped form alliances schools

W.E.B. Du Bois

“In the end
Communism will triumph – I want to help bring that day”

is a great man; few other men of the 20th century approach his
stature. He was simple, calm and

Although many equate W.E.B. DuBois with the Harlem Renaissance and
the founding of the NAACP, toward the later years of his life, he joined the
bandwagon of the Communist party with the belief that it would help end the
oppression of the black race. He had
studied the works of Karl Marx in college and at the University of Berlin and
had even attended socialist meetings, thus considering himself a socialist.

When he traveled
to New York after his education he created the news magazine, The Crisis.
The Crisis
held itself up to capitalist morals and thrived on
donations from the wealthy. Fellow
colleagues, Mary Ovington. William English Walling and Charles Edward Russell
helped to persuade Du Bois to join the socialist party.

With this newfound hope in the
Communist party, DuBois traveled in 1926 to Communist lands. Like many other black leaders he saw
Communism as a way to uplift the black race and bring about equality. And so, he officially joined the Communist
party in 1961,. two years before his death.
Although he was the creator of the talented tenth theory, DuBois saw the
validity of free education and discipline for growth and reform, two beliefs
held by the Communist party.

DuBois's Communist
Application Letter

Cyril Briggs

Cyril Briggs was born in 1888 on the Caribbean island of
Nevis. His father was a plantation
overseer and this accounted for Briggs’s light complexion. Briggs moved to Harlem in 1905 and launched
his writing career, finally landing a job with the Amsterdam News in 1912. In 1917 Briggs founded the African Blood Brotherhood
(ABB). He described his organization as
a “revolutionary secret order” dedicated to armed resistance to lynching,
opposition to all forms of racial discrimination, and voting rights for black
Southerners. The ABB also opposed
American participation in WW1 and linked the struggle for black liberation in
the US to the battle against European colonization in Africa. In 1918 Briggs also started a new magazine
called the “Crusader”. It backed the Socialist Party electoral
campaigns of A. Philip Randolph and exposed lynchings in the south and job
discrimination in the north. Briggs
believed that the Negro’s true place was with labor and that Blacks would
benefit from the triumph of labor and the destruction of the Capitol
Civilization. As a result he joined the
Communist Party in 1921. With the
connection to the Communist Party, the ABB began to have Marxist
influences. It focused on higher wages
for black workers as well as better working conditions. He and his ABB comrades now clearly advocated
a historic shift in the objectives of the black freedom struggle from
assimilation into the bourgeois order to a socialist transformation. His strong Marxist views angered another
black leader of the Harlem Renaissance, Marcus Garvey. Garvey accused Briggs of being a white man
trying to smash government and destroy capital.
Briggs retaliated saying the ABB did not oppose government in principle
it just opposed imperialist government.
The feud continued until Briggs was able to help the government nail
Garvey for mail fraud. By 1924 the
Briggs and his ABB began to die out because the Communist Party began to change
its policy. It turned toward the
American Negro Labor Congress and pulled some blacks in the party away from
their community roots. Although the ABB
didn’t last for more than six or seven years it was important because it showed
blacks interest in international politics, mainly communism. Briggs can actually be credited for bringing
communism into the black community for this very reason.

international politics communism briggs credited bringing communism black community reason

Richard Nathaniel

Born September
4, 1908 in Roxie, Mississippi to a sharecropper and a

Wright becomes acquainted with the communist party and their activities

Joins the John Reed Club of leftist writers and authors of Chicago and begins
submitting revolutionary poetry to Left Front. He is then elected executive secretary for
the Chicago John Reed Club.

Wright joins the Communist party and continues to publish his poetry in
different magazines in the area. During
that same year, he began to have cynicism towards the party because they disband
the John Reed Clubs and stops publication of Left Front.

1935 –
Continued to write for
other left wing publications such as Midland Left, Anvil, International
Literature, Partisan Review,
and New Masses.

Wright releases his most successful book, Native Son, which becomes a
best seller. Many people felt that the
main character was a symbol for the entire black community.

Wright marries, Ellen Poplar, a daughter of Polish Jewish immigrants, and she
was also another Communist.

Leaves the Communist party because of personal and political

jewish immigrants communist 1944 leaves communist party personal political differences jewish immigrants communist 1944 leaves communist party personal political differences

Briggs v.

While Briggs supported the
black laborer and black artists during the Harlem Renaissance, Garvey’s plan was
to send all of the blacks back to Africa. He developed the Black Star
as an easy means for blacks to make their voyage back to the native
homeland. Unlike Briggs who believed that blacks could get involved in the

community, Garvey believed that the only way blacks could gain control would be
by living in a land of their own.

The conflict between the
two men grew as each man gained more power in the black community. Briggs’s
ideas and actions infuriated Garvey, founder of the Universal Negro Improvement
Association (UNIA). Garvey fixated on Briggs's light complexion, accused him of
being a white man and excoriated Communists for allegedly wanting to smash
government and destroy capital. Briggs replied that Garvey had confused capital
with capitalism. The former was wealth, while the latter was control of that
wealth by the few over the many. The ABB did not oppose government in principle;
it simply opposed imperialist government. The Briggs-Garvey feud became
increasingly bitter and personal, and reached a public climax when the former
sued for defamation. Their magistrate had trouble understanding what was
libelous about calling someone white, but nevertheless found for Briggs and
instructed Garvey to publish an apology in his paper, The Negro World.
Yet Garvey offered no effective response when Briggs reminded readers "that
racial consciousness alone was not enough to win freedom in the modern world."
There, power rests "partially on race," yet "centrally on corporate, class,
national, and military forces". In a move that enhanced neither man's standing,
Briggs became a marginal source for the government's effort to nail Garvey for
mail fraud. Briggs needed no urging to accept money from the Communists, who
recognized that the social distance between classes in the black community was
far less than among whites. Soon the party's Daily Worker was likening
oppression of African Americans to European imperialism. With the demise of the
Black Star Line and his alliance with the KKK, Garvey began to lose popularity
in the black community.

Present Day Communist Happenings in the


U.S. Department of State Dispatch4/19/93, Vol. 4 Issue 16, p273,

Statement released by the Office of the Assistant
Secretary/Spokesman, Washington, DC, April 10, 1993.

The assassination of
[South African Communist Party Secretary General] Chris Hani is a deplorable and
troubling event. This brutal murder will sadden all who are working for peace,
democracy, and justice in South Africa. It underscores the urgent need to end
violence in the country and to push ahead with the negotiations which will
create a democratic South Africa.

Chris Hani actively
supported these negotiations and only this week called for an end to violence so
the negotiations could proceed in a climate of peace and stability.


Harvard International Review Spring93, Vol. 15 Issue 3, p46, 3p

Horwitz, Leora

Communism Remains a
Potent Force in South Africa

The years from 1989 to 1991 will be forever remembered
for the death of Communism: the years of Lech Walesa and BorisYeltsin, the
Velvet Revolution and German unification. South Africans, however, will look
back on this period as one of communist revival. Speeches by prominent black
leaders promised nationalization and redistribution of income; 20,000

demonstrated in the streets to celebrate the legalization
of the Communist Party in July, 1990; and 130,000 came to a rally supporting the
Party in November 1990. As McDonald's was opening its first franchise in Moscow,
Joe Slovo, Secretary-General of the South African Communist Party (SACP), was
shouting to cheering masses, "We remain absolutely convinced that, despite some
of the horrors of Stalinism, it is socialism and only socialism which can, in
the end, assure every

individual and humanity as a whole of freedom in its true

This apparent time-warp persists even today. SACP
membership quintupled in the first two years after the organization's
legalization, and the trend shows little sign of slowing. Certainly, serious
problems still plague the Party. Set adrift by the collapse of communism in
Europe and faced with a growing split between moderate leaders willing to
compromise in the short term and radical ones advocating the ongoing use of
violence, the SACP is in danger of fading into political obscurity in the new
South Africa. Nevertheless, the Party retains substantial backing from unionized
workers and significant popularity in the townships.

Most importantly, the SACP wields considerable authority
in other anti-apartheid organizations, particularly the African National
Congress (ANC)--the preeminent anti-apartheid organization in the nation.

The ANC and the SACP have been closely linked for much of
their existence. The ANC was founded in 1912, nine years before the SACP was
established. At first, they differed considerably--one, a nationalist
organization dedicated to promoting black political and economic rights; the
other, an international organization committed to the goal of a socialist
revolution in South Africa. The SACP was, however, the first, and for many years
the only, national political party to admit blacks. As a result, the ANC and
SACP have shared members since their earliest years. In 1927, for example, the
ANC elected as its Secretary-General one of South Africa's first black
communists, Eddie Khaile, who, a year later, was elected to the Central

Committee of the SACP. That year, Moscow also ordered the
SACP to work toward establishing a black republic in South Africa, rather than
concentrating on the immediate creation of a socialist state.

Their common goals established, the two groups then began
to cooperate even more closely. In 1939, Moses Kotane was elected
Secretary-General of the SACP, a position he would retain until 1978. Kotane, a
widely respected and admired leader of both the ANC and the SACP, did much to
foster trust and cooperation between the two groups. Connections between

however, continued to rely primarily on common membership
and individual personal ties. A new and increasingly vocal ANC faction, the
Youth League (which included such members as Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu and
Oliver Tambo) had begun to agitate against communism, while the Party frequently
criticized the ANC in public.

Source: U.S. News & World Report, 12/30/91 &
1/6/92, Vol. 111 Issue 27, Outlook 1992 p56, 1p, 2c

Author(s): Knight, R.; Jones, J.


Dateline: Johannesburg

Prediction 12 Three emerging black leaders to watch in the 1990s

In the 22 months since he walked free after 27 years in prison, Nelson
Mandela has come down to earth. Hailed as the man who held the key to ending
black oppression in South Africa, he now is increasingly cast as a figurehead --
a ''fine but flawed man suffering from incurable jail lag,'' says one analyst.
Nobody doubts that the 73-year-old Mandela will be South Africa's first black
president once white rule ends. But other black leaders will shape the ''new
South Africa.''

Three of the coming generation stand out: Cyril Ramaphosa, 39, the former
general secretary of the National Union of Mineworkers and now the African
National Congress's chief negotiator; 49-year-old Chris Hani, the newly elected
general secretary of the South African Communist Party and onetime militant
chief of staff of Umkhonto We Sizwe (Spear of the Nation), the ANC's armed wing;
and Thabo Mbeki, 48, the head of the ANC's foreign-affairs department.

A lawyer described by one of his erstwhile management opponents as ''the
most competent negotiator I have ever met,'' the articulate Ramaphosa has won
praise from black miners and white businessmen alike for his intelligence and
ability to compromise from a position of strength. But Ramaphosa's ability to
span the racial divide will be tested when the hard political bargaining begins.
Moreover, like much of the socialist-inclined ANC hierarchy, he has a poor grasp
of the subtleties of


The outspoken, colorful Hani has signaled an uncompromising stance by
demanding that an interim government be installed within six months. He was one
of the first blacks to take up arms, in a detachment that fought in Southern
Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) in 1967. Abba Omar, a member of the editorial committee
of the ANC journal Mayibuye, describes Hani's chief assets as enthusiasm and
energy. ''You can hear him for miles, yapping away with everyone he meets,'' he

Unenviable role. If Hani is roughhewn, the British-educated Mbeki is
suave and urbane. As head of the international section of the ANC, Mbeki is the
organization's most wined and dined member -- a role that suits his emollient
manner. Since the ANC was legalized in February 1990, he has had the unenviable
job of convincing whites that they have nothing to fear from an ANC government.
A mischievous sense of humor adds to his popularity: Not long ago he described
the white government as a wheelbarrow because ''it only moves when it is

The months of tough constitutional negotiations ahead
will put a premium on the ANC's ability to think clearly, compromise where
necessary, stay united and sell its decisions to its rank and file. Much will
depend on Nelson Mandela, who must sanction any deal. But the responsibility for
hammering out the details of black-white rule now rests with a younger


Source: Associated Press Online, 01/30/2001

Papers Shed
Light on Communism

WASHINGTON, Jan 30, 2001 (AP
Online via COMTEX) -- Papers that had been stashed

in Siberia since America's
Red Scare detail Communist Party efforts to recruit blacks in Harlem, steal
State Department secrets and organize sharecroppers.

Threaded through the nearly half a million pages retrieved by the U.S
government is information on Soviet financing of the Communist Party in America
and an ambassador's letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt, sent to Moscow by
a mole at State.

Experts on the history of the Communist Party's often-hidden activities
in the United States say the records, copied in Russia by the Library of
Congress, provide an unprecedented view of the radicals at work in the 1920s
through 1940s.

"This is the most complete archive of American Communist Party materials
scholars have ever had available," said Harvey Klehr, history professor at Emory

The collection includes letters by and about John Reed, the radical
American journalist and early Soviet hero. Best known for his book "Ten Days
that Shook the World," an eyewitness account

of the Russian revolution
that was the subject of the movie 'Reds,"' Reed helped organize the Communist
Party in the United States and is the only American known to be buried at the

In a 1920 letter to a friend, Reed's wife, Louise Bryant, spoke of her
typhoid-stricken husband's death in Moscow and how she watched Soviets pass his

"I have been there in the busy afternoon when all Russia hurries by," she
wrote. "Once some of the soldiers came over to the grave. They took off their
hats and spoke very reverently: 'What a good fellow he was!" said one. 'He came
all the way across the world for us. He was one of ours."'

Most of the newly opened records were sent to the former Soviet Union by
communist organizers in the United States. They were shipped there for
safekeeping and to keep Moscow abreast of U.S. activities, said Klehr, author of
several books on communists in America. He said scholarly works on the U.S.
party over the past 50 years have been handicapped by piecemeal records, but the
new collection fills in many blanks.

John Earl Haynes, a historian at the Library of Congress, first peeked at
the records in 1993, following negotiations with Russian archivists. "I really
did have to blow off the dust," Haynes said.

"These are records created in
America by Americans, mostly about Americans. Now some people may think they
were not particularly good Americans, but they're American records."

The records contain further evidence that communists had infiltrated the
State Department in the 1930s. Included are letters from two U.S. ambassadors in
Europe to Roosevelt and a senior State Department official. Thanks to a mole in
the department, the confidential correspondence, concerning political and
economic matters in Europe, ended up in the hands of Soviets. Other materials
highlight communist attempts to organize sharecroppers in the South in 1934 and
blacks, other minorities and even children in Harlem. Communist staff workers at
a "farm school" organizing sharecroppers in St. Louis wrote to their superiors:
"The students were given names and addresses in St.Louis to cover their

From the party's perspective, blacks were the most oppressed section of
the American population and therefore were prospective recruits. The party's
Harlem organizer in 1934 reported on efforts to "develop a proletarian backbone
in the broad movement for Negro liberation."

He said 20 children in Harlem were being brought into the cause and party
officials were looking into getting them uniforms. Working with children "has
possibilities of development into a mass movement," he wrote. Mark Rosenzweig,
chief librarian of the New York-based Reference Center for Marxist Studies,
which is affiliated with today's Communist Party in America, says the party's
work with blacks is a source of pride. "Whatever documentation we can recover
about this enriches the story of the party, which is often reduced to a kind of
Cold War caricature," he said. But he said he's disturbed that the party was not
appraised of the project to open "our records."


Source: Xinhua News Agency, 01/25/2001

S. African President Makes First Cabinet Reshuffle

JOHANNESBURG (Jan. 25) XINHUA - South African President Thabo Mbeki has

his first cabinet reshuffle
after taking office in June, 1999, the South African Press Association

Deputy Home Affairs Minister
Lindiwe Sisulu was promoted Wednesday to the post of Intelligence Minister and
Azanian People' s Organization (AZAPO) leader
Mosibudi Mangena was appointed as Deputy Education Minister.

Mangena, who was appointed in his personal capacity, will resign as
AZAPO's sole

Member of Parliament (MP),
paving the way for a senior party leader to replace him in the National

In a bid to jack up the Home Affairs Ministry, which is widely regarded
as one of the under-performing government departments, Mbeki has also appointed
South African Communist Party chairman Charles Nqakula as deputy minister.
Nqakula had served as Mbeki's parliamentary counselor, a role that will now be
filled by African National Congress MP Sue van der Merwe.

Mbeki also announced that Inkatha Freedom Party MP Musa Zondi became
Deputy Minister of Public Works.


Source: AP Worldstream, 10/21/2000

South African communists march to protest against

JOHANNESBURG, South Africa, Oct 21, 2000 (AP WorldStream via COMTEX) – In
countrywide demonstrations organized by the South African Communist Party,
thousands South Africans protested against banks, which they say aren't doing
enough to eradicate poverty and transform South Africa.

The South African Communist Party said 40,000 people participated in 14
marches and five demonstrations country wide. "The people of South Africa have
spoken, banks and the financial sector as a whole must be transformed," the
party said in a statement. The party is demanding that government to be more
interventionist by creating laws that better promote transformation. It also
called for an immediate halt on the practice of "redlining," which is when
banks' classify black residential areas and enterprises as high-risk or

"The SACP calls for an immediate end to racism and sexism and
discrimination against the working class in general in the lending practices of
banks," the party said. The party has given the government and banks have been
told to give "considered and positive replies" by Dec. 16 - the Day of
Reconciliation, a public holiday in South Africa. "Without satisfactory results,
we will be calling on our people to step up popular mobilization directed at
banks." The communist party has close ties with the ruling African National
Congress. Unemployment among South African blacks exceeds 40 percent, while less
than 7 percent of whites are jobless.

Did You Know…?

The following influential
black leaders were considered to have ties with the Communist

· Margaret Walker

Lance Jeffers

Claude McKay

John Oliver Killens

Julian Mayfield

Alice Childress

Shirley Graham

Lloyd Brown

John Henrik Clarke

William Attaway

Frank Marshall Davis

Lorraine Hansberry

Douglas Turner Ward

Audre Lorde

W.E.B. Du

following were African Americans who at some point could be connected with the
Communist Party:

· Ralph Ellison

Chester Himes

Sterling Brown

Langston Hughes

Paul Robeson

Theodore Ward

Countee Cullen

James Baldwin ( as a

Richard Durham

Alain Locke

Willard Motley

Rosa Guy

Sarah Wright

Jesse Fausett

Owen Dodson

Ossie Davis

Dorothy West

Marion Minus

Robert Hayden

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  • ☆ QueenAline 2012/09/05 00:19:18
    ☆ QueenAline
    Red, black, brown, yellow, or white...communism in any color is BAD.
  • Red ☆ Queen... 2012/09/05 00:33:07
  • Waldorf 2012/08/01 13:35:29
    Being communist (or Muslim) or dressing like a clown, etc. is just another way to stand separate from most white people.
  • Red Waldorf 2012/08/01 16:43:03
  • Tee Quake 2012/07/31 22:32:15
    Tee Quake
    A lot more than I care to know, apparently.
  • Red Tee Quake 2012/08/01 07:08:03

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