What came to me about demarcates v. republicans
Washington continues to advance his idea of the dangers of
sectionalism and expands his warning to include the dangers of political
parties to the government and country as a whole. His warnings took on
added significance with the recent creation of the Democratic-Republican
Party by Jefferson, to oppose Hamilton's Federalist Party, which had
been created a year earlier in 1791, which in many ways promoted the
interest of certain regions and groups of Americans over others. A more
pressing concern for Washington, which he makes reference to in this
portion of the address, was the Democratic-Republican efforts to align
with France and the Federalist efforts to ally the nation with Great
Britain in an ongoing conflict between the two European nations brought
about by the French Revolution.
While Washington accepts the fact that it is natural for people to
organize and operate within groups like political parties, he also
argues that every government has recognized political parties as an
enemy and has sought to repress them because of their tendency to seek
more power than other groups and take revenge on political opponents..
Moreover, Washington makes the case that "the alternate domination"
of one party over another and coinciding efforts to exact revenge upon
their opponents have led to horrible atrocities, and "is itself a
But this leads at length to a more formal and permanent despotism."
From Washington's perspective and judgment, the tendency of political
parties toward permanent despotism is because they eventually and
"gradually incline the minds of men to seek security and repose in the
absolute power of an individual."
Washington goes on to acknowledge the fact that parties are sometimes beneficial in promoting liberty in monarchies,
but argues that political parties must be restrained in a popularly
elected government because of their tendency to distract the government
from their duties, create unfounded jealousies among groups and regions,
raise false alarms amongst the people, promote riots and insurrection,
and provide foreign nations and interests access to the government where
they can impose their will upon the country.
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