The First American Tears
☥☽✪☾DAW ☽✪☾ 2011/03/31 13:00:09
Native Americans in my Opinion have Suffered and yet there is no memorial for them
and hardly a mention in history books at what the United States Goverment has done to native american nations of all tribes
Native Americans who have been here in North America have been here at least 50,000 years native americans numbered around 80 -100 million spread across entire north american
. It is believed that during the ice age, they had traveled a land-bridge across the Bering Sound, from Siberia into what is now Alaska. They had gradually migrated across the land and southward into Mexico and beyond.
Then the white settlers came
If it wasnt for the kindness of the native americans the pilgrims who landed on plymouth rock would not have survived thier first winter among many while adapting to this strange new enviroment
and had the first thanksgiving together
Racism against Native Americans
The colonists and explorers brought measles, smallpox, cholera, yellow fever, and many more devastating diseases. This drastically diminished the Native American population and annihilated entire villages. In addition to this, the arrogant attitude of the ever-growing whites led to the Indian Wars, the Indian Removal Act (1830), and in 1890 one of the worst massacres ever -- Wounded Knee, South Dakota. Here warriors, women, and children alike were ferociously slaughtered by the U.S. Cavalry. The U.S, government began Relocation Programs and the now famous Trail of Tears march where hundreds of Cherokee died from starvation, exposure, and illnesses. The Native American peoples were not only reduced in number but taken from their homes, stripped of their customs, and even forbidden to speak their native languages. Their children were taken from them and sent to schools to “civilize” them, forced to abandon every aspect of their heritage. In January 1876, the U.S. government forced them to live on ‘reservations’ where the majority of Native Americans still reside today.
Members of the Muscogee (Creek) Nation in Oklahoma around 1877. Notice the European and African ancestry members. The Creek were originally from the Alabama region.
Native Americans, had an enormously complex impact on American history and racial relations. During the colonial and independent periods, a long series of conflicts were waged, with the primary objective of obtaining resources of Native Americans. Through Wars
Displacement Such as the Trail of Tears
and the imposition of treaties, land was taken and numerous hardships imposed. In 1540 AD, the first racial strife was with and the imposition of treaties, land was taken and numerous hardships imposed. In 1540 AD, the first racial strife was with Spaniard Hernando de Soto's expedition who enslaved and murdered in many New World communities. In the early 18th century, the English had enslaved nearly 800 Choctaws. After the creation of the United States, the idea of Indian removal gained momentum. However, some Native Americans chose or were allowed to remain and avoided removal whereafter they were subjected to racist institutions in their ancestral homeland. The Choctaws in Mississippi described their situation in 1849, "we have had our habitations torn down and burned, our fences destroyed, cattle turned into our fields and we ourselves have been scourged, manacled, fettered and otherwise personally abused, until by such treatment some of our best men have died." Joseph B. Cobb, who moved to Mississippi from Georgia, described Choctaws as having "no nobility or virtue at all," and in some respect he found blacks, especially native Africans, more interesting and admirable, the red man's superior in every way. The Choctaw and Chickasaw, the tribes he knew best, were beneath contempt, that is, even worse than black slaves.
Ideological expansionist justification (Manifest Destiny) included stereotyped perceptions of all Native Americans as "merciless Indian savages" (as described in the United States Declaration of Independence) despite successful American efforts at civilization as proven with the Cherokee, Chickasaw,Creek, and Choctaw. An egregious attempt occurred with the California gold rush, the first two years of which saw the deaths of thousands of Native Americans. Under Mexican rule in California, Indians were subjected to de facto enslavement under a system of peonage. While in 1850, California formally entered the Union as a free state, with respect to the issue of slavery, the practice of Indian indentured servitude was not outlawed by the California Legislature until 1863.
Military and civil resistance by Native Americans has been a constant feature of American history. So too have a variety of debates around issues of sovereignty, the upholding of treaty provisions, and the civil rights of Native Americans under U.S. law.
When Pocahontas was approximately 13 years old in 1607, she met John Smith of Jamestown, Virginia. They met in her father's village which was called Werowocomoco on the north shore of what is now the York River. A tale often associated with Smith and Pocahontas is that she saved him from death by appealing to her father
It is not known whether Pocahontas actually fell in love with Rolfe before they married. Some conjecture that their marriage was one condition of her release from captivity. Pocahontas was to convert to Christianity and was baptized Rebecca. She then married Rolfe on April 5, 1614. Powhatan gave his consent and presented Rolfe with a large piece of land. This marriage brought peace between the Powhatans and English until Chief Powhatan's death in 1618.
The Apache Indians have always been characterized as fierce warriors with an indomitable will. It is not surprising that the last armed resistance by Native Americans came from this proud tribe of American Indians. As the Civil War ended the U. S. Government brought its military to bear against the natives out west. They continued a policy of containment and restriction to reservations. In 1875, the restrictive reservation policy had limited the Apaches to 7200 square miles. By the 1880's the Apache had been limited to 2600 square miles. This policy of restriction angered many Native Americans and led to confrontation between the military and bands of Apache. The famous Chiricahua Apache Geronimo led one such band.
Born in 1829, Geronimo lived in western New Mexico when this region was still a part of Mexico. Geronimo was a Bedonkohe Apache that married into the Chiricahuas. The murder of his mother, wife and children by soldiers from Mexico in 1858 forever changed his life and the settlers of the southwest. He vowed at this point to kill as many white men as possible and spent the next thirty years making good on that promise. Surprisingly, Geronimo was a medicine man and not a chief of the Apache. However, his visions made him indispensable to the Apache chiefs and gave him a position of prominence with the Apache. In the mid 1870's the government moved Native Americans onto reservations, and Geronimo took exception to this forced removal and fled with a band of followers. He spent the next 10 years on reservations and raiding with his band. They raided across New Mexico, Arizona and northern Mexico. His exploits became highly chronicled by the press and he became the most feared Apache. Geronimo and his band were eventually captured at Skeleton Canyon in 1886. The Chiricahua Apache were then shipped by rail to Florida.
All of Geronimo's band was to be sent to Fort Marion in St. Augustine. However, a few business leaders in Pensacola, Florida petitioned the government to have Geronimo himself sent to Fort Pickens, which is part of the 'Gulf Islands National Seashore'. They claimed that Geronimo and his men would be better guarded at Fort Pickens than at the overcrowded Fort Marion. However, an editorial in a local newspaper congratulated a congressman for bringing such a great tourist attraction to the city. On October 25, 1886, 15 Apache warriors arrived at Fort Pickens. Geronimo and his warriors spent many days working hard labor at the fort in direct violation of the agreements made at Skeleton Canyon. Eventually the families of Geronimo's band were returned to them at Fort Pickens, and then they all moved on to other places of incarceration. The city of Pensacola was sad to see Geronimo the tourist attraction leave. In one day he had over 459 visitors with an average of 20 a day during the duration of his captivity at Fort Pickens.
Unfortunately, the proud Geronimo had been reduced to a sideshow spectacle. He lived the rest of his days as a prisoner. He eventually died in 1909 at Fort Sill, Oklahoma. The captivity of the Chiricahuas ended in 1913
The man who became a national celebrity with the name "Chief Joseph" was born in the Wallowa Valley in what is now northeastern Oregon in 1840. He was given the name Hin-mah-too-yah-lat-kekt, or Thunder Rolling Down the Mountain, but was widely known as Joseph, or Joseph the Younger, because his father had taken the Christian name Joseph when he was baptized at the Lapwai mission by Henry Spalding in 1838.
Joseph the Elder was one of the first Nez Percé converts to Christianity and an active supporter of the tribe's longstanding peace with whites. In 1855 he even helped Washington's territorial governor set up a Nez Percé reservation that stretched from Oregon into Idaho. But in 1863, following a gold rush into Nez Percé territory, the federal government took back almost six million acres of this land, restricting the Nez Percé to a reservation in Idaho that was only one tenth its prior size. Feeling himself betrayed, Joseph the Elder denounced the United States, destroyed his American flag and his Bible, and refused to move his band from the Wallowa Valley or sign the treaty that would make the new reservation boundaries official.
When his father died in 1871, Joseph was elected to succeed him. He inherited not only a name but a situation made increasingly volatile as white settlers continued to arrive in the Wallowa Valley. Joseph staunchly resisted all efforts to force his band onto the small Idaho reservation, and in 1873 a federal order to remove white settlers and let his people remain in the Wallowa Valley made it appear that he might be successful. But the federal government soon reversed itself, and in 1877 General Oliver Otis Howard threatened a cavalry attack to force Joseph's band and other hold-outs onto the reservation. Believing military resistance futile, Joseph reluctantly led his people toward Idaho.
Unfortunately, they never got there. About twenty young Nez Percé warriors, enraged at the loss of their homeland, staged a raid on nearby settlements and killed several whites. Immediately, the army began to pursue Joseph's band and the others who had not moved onto the reservation. Although he had opposed war, Joseph cast his lot with the war leaders.
What followed was one of the most brilliant military retreats in American history. Even the unsympathetic General William Tecumseh Sherman could not help but be impressed with the 1,400 mile march, stating that "the Indians throughout displayed a courage and skill that elicited universal praise... [they] fought with almost scientific skill, using advance and rear guards, skirmish lines, and field fortifications." In over three months, the band of about 700, fewer than 200 of whom were warriors, fought 2,000 U.S. soldiers and Indian auxiliaries in four major battles and numerous skirmishes.
By the time he formally surrendered on October 5, 1877, Joseph was widely referred to in the American press as "the Red Napoleon." It is unlikely, however, that he played as critical a role in the Nez Percé's military feat as his legend suggests. He was never considered a war chief by his people, and even within the Wallowa band, it was Joseph's younger brother, Olikut, who led the warriors, while Joseph was responsible for guarding the camp. It appears, in fact, that Joseph opposed the decision to flee into Montana and seek aid from the Crows and that other chiefs -- Looking Glass and some who had been killed before the surrender -- were the true strategists of the campaign. Nevertheless, Joseph's widely reprinted surrender speech has immortalized him as a military leader in American popular culture:
I am tired of fighting. Our chiefs are killed. Looking Glass is dead. Toohoolhoolzote is dead. The old men are all dead. It is the young men who say, "Yes" or "No." He who led the young men [Olikut] is dead. It is cold, and we have no blankets. The little children are freezing to death. My people, some of them, have run away to the hills, and have no blankets, no food. No one knows where they are -- perhaps freezing to death. I want to have time to look for my children, and see how many of them I can find. Maybe I shall find them among the dead. Hear me, my chiefs! I am tired. My heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands I will fight no more forever.
Joseph's fame did him little good. Although he had surrendered with the understanding that he would be allowed to return home, Joseph and his people were instead taken first to eastern Kansas and then to a reservation in Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma) where many of them died of epidemic diseases. Although he was allowed to visit Washington, D.C., in 1879 to plead his case to U.S. President Rutherford B. Hayes, it was not until 1885 that Joseph and the other refugees were returned to the Pacific Northwest. Even then, half, including Joseph, were taken to a non-Nez Percé reservation in northern Washington, separated from the rest of their people in Idaho and their homeland in the Wallowa Valley.
In his last years, Joseph spoke eloquently against the injustice of United States policy toward his people and held out the hope that America's promise of freedom and equality might one day be fulfilled for Native Americans as well. An indomitable voice of conscience for the West, he died in 1904, still in exile from his homeland, according to his doctor "of a broken heart..
one of the mightiest group of people on the planet
In 1831, life on the Great Plains was good for the Lakota. The land provided everything. There were bison which provided meat to eat, skins for shelter and clothing, and bones for utensils. Even the sinew served the buffalo hunter as bow strings. There were respected enemies against whom to prove one's valor: Absaroke, Flatheads, Assiniboine, Omaha, Chippewa, and Pawnee. In this year of 1831, in a Hunkpapa Village near what is today called the Grand River, a son was born to Chief Jumping Bull. In time, the world would come to know this one.
If life was good for the Lakota people, it was especially good for the youth. While still a small child, the little one learned to use a small boy's bow. With this, he hunted birds, rabbits, and other such small animals. There were also ponies to ride, and creeks in which to swim. No boy could have asked for more.
As the boy grew into a young man, he desired to prove himself to his people. At the tender age of ten, he demonstrated both skill and courage when he killed his first buffalo. At the age of just fourteen, this boy (nicknamed "Hunkesh-nee" or "Slow" because of his deliberate way of doing things) joined a raid against the Hunkpapa Lakota's traditional enemy, the Absaroke. Known later to wasichu as Crows, the Absaroke were formidable enemies and themselves mighty warriors. (Jumping Bull, Tatanka Yotanka's father, would die while killing his own Crow slayer) The boy counted coup by touching a Crow warrior, and thus at the age of fourteen, the boy became a man and a warrior.
Any hope of a peaceful, reasonable settlement to the plains conflict ended on July 30, 1874, when Horatio Nelson Ross, a member of Custer's expedition, discovered gold in the Black Hills. In November, 1875, federal officials opened the Black Hills for mining, never mind that the Black Hills belonged to the Lakota Nation and not the United States of America. This outrage the Lakota would not tolerate. Washington's answer to this problem of their own creating was to demand that Tatanka Yotanka lead his people onto a reservation by January 31, 1876. He declined the invitation. The die was cast.
On the morning of June 17, a scout reported the presence of General Crook's troops up the Rosebud from the encampment. Over 1000 Lakota and Cheyenne warriors rode to the attack and after a bitter day of fighting, drove Crook's force away from the encampment. When the victorious warriors returned, Tatanka Yotanka was pleased, but he knew that this was not the great victory of his vision. That was yet to come.
On the afternoon of June 25, the battle began. Custer had divided his command into three elements. This was a serious mistake in view of the great concentration of warriors. Just as the vision had predicted, Custer charged the camp but was quickly driven away to a low eminence now know as "Last Stand Hill." There the Lakota and Cheyenne under the battlefield leadership of Crazy Horse and Gall, annihilated Custer's contingent to the last man. Tatanka Yotanka had first looked after his family, then made medicine for the warriors.
In 1877, the U.S. Army relentlessly pursued and harassed the plains nations. At last in 1877, Tatanka Yotanka led his followers to Canada. He refused an offer from General Terry to return to a reservation in exchange for a pardon, but in 1881, he chose to surrender. The buffalo was by and large gone and there was no way to feed the People.
Once their territories were incorporated into the United States, surviving Native Americans were denied equality before the law and often treated as wards of the state. Many Native Americans were relegated to reservations—constituting just 4% of U.S. territory—and the treaties signed with them violated. Tens of thousands of American Indians and Alaska Natives were forced to attend a residential school system which sought to reeducate them in white settler American values, culture and economy, to "kill the Indian, saving the man."
Sarah Winnemucca (1844–1891) was one of the most influential and charismatic Native American women in American history. Born near the Humboldt River Sink in Nevada to a legendary family of Paiute leaders at a time when the Paiutes’ homeland and way of life were increasingly threatened by the influx of Anglo settlers, Sarah later wrote that the white men “came like a lion, yes, like a roaring lion, and have continued so ever since.
Many tribes like the Pawnees welcomed the assistance of the whites because they could provide them with much valued service, but they had no intention of changing their customs or their lifestyle. The white community never seemed to understand the tenacity with which the Pawnees would cling to their own culture. The Pawnees had grown crops for years, but their annual buffalo hunts were still necessary for their survival. While the treaty clearly said the hunts had to cease, the missionaries were able to convince the government to loosely enforce those terms.
Unfortunately the Plum Creek community became divided over a variety of issues and frustrations. One of the most divisive issues was over the methods to be adopted in dealing with the Pawnees. A goal of the mission was to teach the Indians manners and customs then practiced by Christian whites. Dunbar and Allis were united in their belief that the Pawnees could not be bullied into becoming farmers and that their conversion to Christianity would require many years. The newer members of the community -- the Gaston, Platt and Mathers families -- were less willing to wait and were willing to use forceful methods "to speed" the Indians along to Christianity.
An Indian boarding school refers to one of many schools that were established in the United States during the late 19th century to educate Native American youths according to Euro-American standards. These schools were primarily run by missionaries. These often proved traumatic to Native American children, who were forbidden to speak their native languages, taught Christianity and denied the right to practice their native religions, and in numerous other ways forced to abandon their Native American identities and adopt European-American culture and the English language. There were many documented cases of sexual, physical and mental abuse occurring at these schools.
In the late eighteenth century, reformers starting with Washington and Knox, in efforts to "civilize" or otherwise assimilate Native Americans (as opposed to relegating them to reservations), adopted the practice of educating native children in modern American culture. The Civilization Fund Act of 1819 promoted this civilization policy by providing funding to societies (mostly religious) who worked on Native American improvement
Further dispossession continued through concessions for industries such as oil, mining and timber and through division of land through legislation such as the Allotment Act. These concessions have raised problems of consent, exploitation of low royalty rates, environmental injustice, and gross mismanagement of funds held in trust, resulting in the loss of $10–40 billion. The Worldwatch Institutenotes that 317 reservations are threatened by environmental hazards, while Western Shoshone land has been subjected to more than 1,000 nuclear explosions.
The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U.S. citizenship to all Native Americans
however lets not forget they were the LAST people in America given Citizenship and the Right to Vote. It has only been 60 years since ALL American Indians were allowed the Right to Vote in the U.S., there were 7 States that DID NOT allow American Indians to vote until 1948, Many states, including, New Mexico overtly did not allow Native Americans to vote until 1962. Which is abysmal given that New Mexico has a large Native population
Native Americans have had thier country stolen from them
History has been Re Written so they appear to be the bad guy and a savage when they are not look at almost any western you will always see cowboys and indians
Then they were forced to live on Reservations in the middle of the Desert on the worst possible locations then all sorts of laws put on them
not even allowed to vote for a country they were born in
Then Religious Groups attempted to Rob Native americans of thier identity and culture and bible thump them into giving up thier beliefs and way of life
and always considered 2nd class citizens by many
and prejudice continues still to this day
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