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Power of government, commerce clause, consolidation (must read)

Katherine 2012/07/18 22:43:58



I wrote you a letter yesterday, of which you will be free to make what use you please. This will contain matters not intended for the public eye. I see, as you do, and with the deepest affliction, the rapid strides with which the federal branch of our government is advancing towards the usurpation of all the rights reserved to the States, and the consolidation in itself of all powers, foreign and domestic; and that, too, by constructions which, if legitimate, leave no limits to their power. Take together the decisions of the federal court, the doctrines of the President, and the misconstructions of the constitutional compact acted on by the legislature of the federal branch, and it is but too evident, that the three ruling branches of that department are in combination to strip their colleagues, the State authorities, of the powers reserved by them, and to exercise themselves all functions foreign and domestic. Under the power to regulate commerce, they assume indefinitely that also over agriculture and manufactures, and call it regulation to take the earnings of one of these branches of industry, and that too the most depressed, and put them into the pockets of the other, the most flourishing of all. Under the authority to establish post roads, they claim that of cutting down mountains for the construction of roads, of digging canals, and aided by a little sophistry on the words "general welfare," a right to do, not only the acts to effect that, which are specifically enumerated and permitted, but whatsoever they shall think, or pretend will be for the general welfare. And what is our resource for the preservation of the constitution? Reason and argument? You might as well reason and argue with the marble columns encircling them. The representatives chosen by ourselves? They are joined in the combination, some from incorrect views of government, some from corrupt ones, sufficient voting together to out-number the sound parts; and with majorities only of one, two, or three, bold enough to go forward in defiance. Are we then to stand to our arms, with the hot-headed Georgian? No. That must be the last resource, not to be thought of until much longer and greater sufferings. If every infraction of a compact of so many parties is to be resisted at once, as a dissolution of it, none can ever be formed which would last one year. We must have patience and longer endurance then with our brethren while under delusion; give them time for reflection and experience of consequences; keep ourselves in a situation to profit by the chapter of accidents; and separate from our companions only when the sole alternatives left, are the dissolution of our Union with them, or submission to a government without limitation of powers. Between these two evils, when we must make a choice, there can be no hesitation. But in the meanwhile, the States should be watchful to note every material usurpation on their rights; to denounce them as they occur in the most peremptory terms; to protest against them as wrongs to which our present submission shall be considered, not as acknowledgments or precedents of our yeomanry. This will be to them a next best blessing to the monarchy of their first aim, and perhaps the surest stepping-stone to it.


Jefferson to William Branch Giles
December 26, 1825

Read More: http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/P/tj3/writings/brf/jefl2...

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  • Tennessean 2012/08/02 15:54:33
    Tennessean
    +1
    James Madison, considered the Father of the Constitution, stated the following::

    "The powers delegated by the proposed Constitution to the federal government are few and defined. Those which are to remain in the State governments are numerous and indefinite. The former will be exercised principally on external objects, as war, peace, negotiation and foreign commerce."

    "The operations of the federal government will be most extensive and important in times of war and danger; those of the State governments, in times of peace and security."

    “With respect to the words general welfare, I have always regarded them as qualified by the detail of powers connected with them. To take them in a literal and unlimited sense would be a metamorphosis of the Constitution into a character which there is a host of proofs was not contemplated by its creators.”

    “It is very certain that [the commerce clause] grew out of the abuse of the power by the importing States in taxing the non-importing, and was intended as a negative and preventive provision against injustice among the States themselves, rather than as a power to be used for the positive purposes of the General Government.”

    “If Congress can employ money indefinitely to the general welfare, and are the sole and supreme judges of the ...
    James Madison, considered the Father of the Constitution, stated the following::

    "The powers delegated by the proposed Constitution to the federal government are few and defined. Those which are to remain in the State governments are numerous and indefinite. The former will be exercised principally on external objects, as war, peace, negotiation and foreign commerce."

    "The operations of the federal government will be most extensive and important in times of war and danger; those of the State governments, in times of peace and security."

    “With respect to the words general welfare, I have always regarded them as qualified by the detail of powers connected with them. To take them in a literal and unlimited sense would be a metamorphosis of the Constitution into a character which there is a host of proofs was not contemplated by its creators.”

    “It is very certain that [the commerce clause] grew out of the abuse of the power by the importing States in taxing the non-importing, and was intended as a negative and preventive provision against injustice among the States themselves, rather than as a power to be used for the positive purposes of the General Government.”

    “If Congress can employ money indefinitely to the general welfare, and are the sole and supreme judges of the general welfare, they may take the care of religion into their own hands; they may appoint teachers in every State, county and parish and pay them out of their public treasury; they may take into their own hands the education of children, establishing in like manner schools throughout the Union; they may assume the provision of the poor; they may undertake the regulation of all roads other than post-roads; in short, every thing, from the highest object of state legislation down to the most minute object of police, would be thrown under the power of Congress... Were the power of Congress to be established in the latitude contended for, it would subvert the very foundations, and transmute the very nature of the limited Government established by the people of America.”
    (more)
  • Michael=Constitution & Liberty 2012/07/19 08:36:45
    Michael=Constitution & Liberty
    http://www.famguardian.org/Ta...
    CITES BY TOPIC: maxims of commerce
    Sovereignty Forms and Instructions Manual, Form #10.005, Section 2.4.4.1:
    The foundation of the Uniform Commercial Code (U.C.C.) is Commercial Law. The foundation of Commercial Law is based upon certain universal, eternally just, valid, moral precepts and truths. The basis of Commercial Law is the Law of Exodus (i.e. The 10 Commandments) of the Old Testament and Judaic (Mosaic) Orthodox Hebrew Commercial law. The Laws of Commerce have remained unchanged for at least six thousand years and form the basis of western civilization, if not all nations. This law of commerce therefore applies universally throughout the world. Real Commercial Law is non-judicial and is prior and superior to, the basis of, and cannot be set aside or overruled by the statutes of any government, legislature, governmental or quasi-governmental agencies, courts, judges, and law enforcement agencies, which are under an inherent obligation to uphold said Commercial Law. Commercial Law is a “War of Truth” expressed in the form of an intellectual weapon called an Affidavit. An Affidavit is merely a written list of facts or truths signed under penalty of perjury and usually notarized. The person composing and signing an affidavit is called the ...

















    http://www.famguardian.org/Ta...
    CITES BY TOPIC: maxims of commerce
    Sovereignty Forms and Instructions Manual, Form #10.005, Section 2.4.4.1:
    The foundation of the Uniform Commercial Code (U.C.C.) is Commercial Law. The foundation of Commercial Law is based upon certain universal, eternally just, valid, moral precepts and truths. The basis of Commercial Law is the Law of Exodus (i.e. The 10 Commandments) of the Old Testament and Judaic (Mosaic) Orthodox Hebrew Commercial law. The Laws of Commerce have remained unchanged for at least six thousand years and form the basis of western civilization, if not all nations. This law of commerce therefore applies universally throughout the world. Real Commercial Law is non-judicial and is prior and superior to, the basis of, and cannot be set aside or overruled by the statutes of any government, legislature, governmental or quasi-governmental agencies, courts, judges, and law enforcement agencies, which are under an inherent obligation to uphold said Commercial Law. Commercial Law is a “War of Truth” expressed in the form of an intellectual weapon called an Affidavit. An Affidavit is merely a written list of facts or truths signed under penalty of perjury and usually notarized. The person composing and signing an affidavit is called the “affiant”. It is “survival of the fittest” where the last unrebutted stands triumphant.

    In the Laws of Commerce, the eternal and unchanging principle of the law are:

    A workman is worthy of his hire. Authorities: Exodus 20:15; Lev. 19:13; Matt. 10:10; Luke 10:7; II Tim. 2:6. Legal maxim: “It is against equity for freemen not to have the free disposal of their own property.
    All are equal under the law (God’s Law-Moral and Natural Law). Authorities: Exodus 21:23-25; Lev. 24:17-21; Deut. 1:17, 19:21; Matt. 22:36-40; Luke 10:17; Col. 3:25. Legal maxims: “No one is above the law.”; “Commerce, by the law of nations, ought to be common, and not to be converted into a monopoly and the private gain of a few.”
    In commerce, truth is sovereign. See Exodus 20:16; Psalm 117:2; John 8:32; II Cor. 13:8. Legal maxim: “To lie is to go against the mind.” Oriental proverb: “Of all that is good, sublimity is supreme.”
    Truth is expressed in the form of an Affidavit. See Lev. 5:4-5; Lev. 6:3-5; Lev. 19:11-13; Num. 30:2; Matt. 5:33; James 5:12.
    A matter must be expressed to be resolved. See Heb. 4:16; Phil. 4:5; Eph. 6:19-21. Legal maxim: “He who fails to assert his rights has none.”
    An unrebutted affidavit stands as truth in commerce. See 1 Pet. 1:25; Heb. 6:13-15. Legal maxim: “He who does not deny, admits.”
    An unrebutted affidavit becomes a judgment in commerce. See Heb. 6:16-17. Any proceeding in court, tribunal, or arbitration forum consists of a contest, or “duel,” of commercial affidavits wherein the points remaining unrebutted in the end stand as the truth and the matters to which the judgment of the law is applied.
    8.He who leaves the field of battle first (does not respond to Affidavit) loses by default. See Book of Job; Matt 10:22. Legal maxim: “He who does not repel a wrong when he can occasions it.”
    Sacrifice is the measure of credibility. One who is not damaged, put at risk, or willing to swear an oath on his commercial liability for the truth of his statements and legitimacy of his actions has no basis to assert claims or charges and forfeits all credibility and right to claim authority. See Acts 7, life/death of Stephen. Legal maxim: “He who bears the burden ought also to derive the benefit.”
    A lien or claim, under commercial law, can only be satisfied by one of the following actions. See Gen. 2-3; Matt 4; Revelation. Legal maxim: “If the plaintiff does not prove his case , the defendant is absolved.”
    10.1. A rebuttal Affidavit of Truth, supported by evidence, point-by-point.
    10.2. Payment.
    10.3. Agreement.
    10.4. Resolution by a jury according to the rules of common law.
    Because truth is sovereign in commerce and everyone is responsible for propagating the truth in all speaking, writing, and acting, all commercial processes function via affidavit certified and sworn on each affiants commercial liability as “true, correct, and complete,” attesting under oath re the validity, relevance, and veracity of all matters stated, and likewise demanded. Usually in written matters, such as on an IRS Form 1040, 8300, etc., voter registration application, driver’s license application, notary form for document certification, application for a Treasury Direct Account, and on nearly every document that those who run the System desire anyone to sign in a commercially binding matter, signature is required under penalty of perjury “true, correct, and complete.” In a court setting, however, testimony (oral commercial affidavit) is stated in the judicial equivalent by being sworn to be “the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help me God.” As well the need for asserting all matters under solemn oath of personal, commercial, financial, and legal liability for the validity of each and every statement, participant must provide material evidence, i.e. ledgering/bookkeeping, substantiating that each fact or entry is true, valid, relevant, and verifiable. Without said acceptance of liability and facts provided to support one’s assertions, no credibility is established.
    (more)
  • Katherine Michael... 2012/07/19 12:01:03 (edited)
    Katherine
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?...

    "Sovereignty Forms and Instructions Manual, Form #10.005, Section 2.4.4.1"
    Only thing I could find was a booklet written in 2007.

    Those maxims and saying I found in A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States of America, and of the Seberal States of the American Union: With References to the Civil and Other Systems of Foreign Law by John Bouvier - Vol. II 1874
    http://books.google.com/books...

    "Exodus 20:15" is you shall not steal, if you work for it it's yours.

    "Leviticus 19:13" You shall not oppress your neighbor. Exactly what socialism does when it appropriates your labor and property and makes you grovel to the State.

    Luke -10 After these things the Lord appointed other seventy also, and sent them two and two before his face into every city and place, whither he himself would come. 2 Therefore said he unto them, The harvest truly is great, but the labourers are few: pray ye therefore the Lord of the harvest, that he would send forth labourers into his harvest. 3 Go your ways: behold, I send you forth as lambs among wolves. 4 Carry neither purse, nor scrip, nor shoes: and salute no man by the way. 5 And into whatsoever house ye enter, first say, Peace be to this house. 6 And if the son of peace be there, your peace...












































































    http://www.youtube.com/watch?...

    "Sovereignty Forms and Instructions Manual, Form #10.005, Section 2.4.4.1"
    Only thing I could find was a booklet written in 2007.

    Those maxims and saying I found in A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States of America, and of the Seberal States of the American Union: With References to the Civil and Other Systems of Foreign Law by John Bouvier - Vol. II 1874
    http://books.google.com/books...

    "Exodus 20:15" is you shall not steal, if you work for it it's yours.

    "Leviticus 19:13" You shall not oppress your neighbor. Exactly what socialism does when it appropriates your labor and property and makes you grovel to the State.

    Luke -10 After these things the Lord appointed other seventy also, and sent them two and two before his face into every city and place, whither he himself would come. 2 Therefore said he unto them, The harvest truly is great, but the labourers are few: pray ye therefore the Lord of the harvest, that he would send forth labourers into his harvest. 3 Go your ways: behold, I send you forth as lambs among wolves. 4 Carry neither purse, nor scrip, nor shoes: and salute no man by the way. 5 And into whatsoever house ye enter, first say, Peace be to this house. 6 And if the son of peace be there, your peace shall rest upon it: if not, it shall turn to you again. 7 And in the same house remain, eating and drinking such things as they give: for the labourer is worthy of his hire. Go not from house to house. 8 And into whatsoever city ye enter, and they receive you, eat such things as are set before you: 9 And heal the sick that are therein, and say unto them, The kingdom of God is come nigh unto you. 10 But into whatsoever city ye enter, and they receive you not, go your ways out into the streets of the same, and say, 11 Even the very dust of your city, which cleaveth on us, we do wipe off against you: notwithstanding be ye sure of this, that the kingdom of God is come nigh unto you. 12 But I say unto you, that it shall be more tolerable in that day for Sodom, than for that city. 13 Woe unto thee, Chorazin! woe unto thee, Bethsaida! for if the mighty works had been done in Tyre and Sidon, which have been done in you, they had a great while ago repented, sitting in sackcloth and ashes. 14 But it shall be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon at the judgment, than for you. 15 And thou, Capernaum, which art exalted to heaven, shalt be thrust down to hell. 16 He that heareth you heareth me; and he that despiseth you despiseth me; and he that despiseth me despiseth him that sent me. 17 And the seventy returned again with joy, saying, Lord, even the devils are subject unto us through thy name. 18 And he said unto them, I beheld Satan as lightning fall from heaven. 19 Behold, I give unto you power to tread on serpents and scorpions, and over all the power of the enemy: and nothing shall by any means hurt you. 20 Notwithstanding in this rejoice not, that the spirits are subject unto you; but rather rejoice, because your names are written in heaven. 21 In that hour Jesus rejoiced in spirit, and said, I thank thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that thou hast hid these things from the wise and prudent, and hast revealed them unto babes: even so, Father; for so it seemed good in thy sight. 22 All things are delivered to me of my Father: and no man knoweth who the Son is, but the Father; and who the Father is, but the Son, and he to whom the Son will reveal him. 23 And he turned him unto his disciples, and said privately, Blessed are the eyes which see the things that ye see: 24 For I tell you, that many prophets and kings have desired to see those things which ye see, and have not seen them; and to hear those things which ye hear, and have not heard them. 25 And, behold, a certain lawyer stood up, and tempted him, saying, Master, what shall I do to inherit eternal life? 26 He said unto him, What is written in the law? how readest thou? 27 And he answering said, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy strength, and with all thy mind; and thy neighbour as thyself. 28 And he said unto him, Thou hast answered right: this do, and thou shalt live. 29 But he, willing to justify himself, said unto Jesus, And who is my neighbour? 30 And Jesus answering said, A certain man went down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and fell among thieves, which stripped him of his raiment, and wounded him, and departed, leaving him half dead. 31 And by chance there came down a certain priest that way: and when he saw him, he passed by on the other side. 32 And likewise a Levite, when he was at the place, came and looked on him, and passed by on the other side. 33 But a certain Samaritan, as he journeyed, came where he was: and when he saw him, he had compassion on him, 34 And went to him, and bound up his wounds, pouring in oil and wine, and set him on his own beast, and brought him to an inn, and took care of him. 35 And on the morrow when he departed, he took out two pence, and gave them to the host, and said unto him, Take care of him; and whatsoever thou spendest more, when I come again, I will repay thee. 36 Which now of these three, thinkest thou, was neighbour unto him that fell among the thieves? 37 And he said, He that shewed mercy on him. Then said Jesus unto him, Go, and do thou likewise. 38 Now it came to pass, as they went, that he entered into a certain village: and a certain woman named Martha received him into her house. 39 And she had a sister called Mary, which also sat at Jesus' feet, and heard his word. 40 But Martha was cumbered about much serving, and came to him, and said, Lord, dost thou not care that my sister hath left me to serve alone? bid her therefore that she help me. 41 And Jesus answered and said unto her, Martha, Martha, thou art careful and troubled about many things: 42 But one thing is needful: and Mary hath chosen that good part, which shall not be taken away from her. --- help those who are in need and earn God's grace, don't do it, harden hearts and help them further spiral downward.

    "II Tim. 2:6" -- 5 And also if anyone competes in athletics, he is not crowned unless he competes according to the rules. 6 The hardworking farmer must be first to partake of the crops.

    "Exodus 21:23-25" - But if there is serious injury, you are to take life for life, 24 eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, 25 burn for burn, wound for wound, bruise for bruise.

    "Lev. 24:17-21" - 17 And he that killeth any man shall surely be put to death. 18 And he that killeth a beast shall make it good; beast for beast. 19 And if a man cause a blemish in his neighbour; as he hath done, so shall it be done to him; 20 Breach for breach, eye for eye, tooth for tooth: as he hath caused a blemish in a man, so shall it be done to him again. 21 And he that killeth a beast, he shall restore it: and he that killeth a man, he shall be put to death.

    "Deut. 1:17" - 9 “At that time I said to you, ‘I am not able to bear you by myself. 10 The Lord your God has multiplied you, and behold, you are today as numerous as the stars of heaven. 11 May the Lord, the God of your fathers, make you a thousand times as many as you are and bless you, as he has promised you! 12 How can I bear by myself the weight and burden of you and your strife? 13 Choose for your tribes wise, understanding, and experienced men, and I will appoint them as your heads.’ 14 And you answered me, ‘The thing that you have spoken is good for us to do.’ 15 So I took the heads of your tribes, wise and experienced men, and set them as heads over you, commanders of thousands, commanders of hundreds, commanders of fifties, commanders of tens, and officers, throughout your tribes. 16 And I charged your judges at that time, ‘Hear the cases between your brothers, and judge righteously between a man and his brother or the alien who is with him. 17 You shall not be partial in judgment. You shall hear the small and the great alike. You shall not be intimidated by anyone, for the judgment is God's. And the case that is too hard for you, you shall bring to me, and I will hear it.’

    "Deut. 19:21" - And thine eye shall not pity; but life shall go for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot. (God condones capital punishment)

    "Matt. 22:36-40" - 34 Hearing that Jesus had silenced the Sadducees, the Pharisees got together. 35 One of them, an expert in the law, tested him with this question: 36 “Teacher, which is the greatest commandment in the Law?” 37 Jesus replied: “‘Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind.’[c] 38 This is the first and greatest commandment. 39 And the second is like it: ‘Love your neighbor as yourself.’[d] 40 All the Law and the Prophets hang on these two commandments.”

    "Col. 3:25" - But he that doeth wrong shall receive for the wrong which he hath done : and there is no respect of persons.

    "Commerce, by the law of nations, ought to be common, and not to be converted into a monopoly and the private gain of a few" Looks relatively modern.
    http://legal-dictionary.thefr...

    "Exodus 20:16" - And God spoke all these words: 2 “I am the Lord your God, who brought you out of Egypt, out of the land of slavery. 3 “You shall have no other gods before[a] me. 4 “You shall not make for yourself an image in the form of anything in heaven above or on the earth beneath or in the waters below. 5 You shall not bow down to them or worship them; for I, the Lord your God, am a jealous God, punishing the children for the sin of the parents to the third and fourth generation of those who hate me, 6 but showing love to a thousand generations of those who love me and keep my commandments. 7 “You shall not misuse the name of the Lord your God, for the Lord will not hold anyone guiltless who misuses his name. 8 “Remember the Sabbath day by keeping it holy. 9 Six days you shall labor and do all your work, 10 but the seventh day is a sabbath to the Lord your God. On it you shall not do any work, neither you, nor your son or daughter, nor your male or female servant, nor your animals, nor any foreigner residing in your towns. 11 For in six days the Lord made the heavens and the earth, the sea, and all that is in them, but he rested on the seventh day. Therefore the Lord blessed the Sabbath day and made it holy. 12 “Honor your father and your mother, so that you may live long in the land the Lord your God is giving you. 13 “You shall not murder. 14 “You shall not commit adultery. 15 “You shall not steal. 16 “You shall not give false testimony against your neighbor. 17 “You shall not covet your neighbor’s house. You shall not covet your neighbor’s wife, or his male or female servant, his ox or donkey, or anything that belongs to your neighbor.”

    "Psalm 117:2" - For great is his love toward us, and the faithfulness of the Lord endures forever.

    "John 8:32" - Then you will know the truth, and the truth will set you free.

    "II Cor. 13:8" - 5 Examine yourselves, to see whether you are in the faith. Test yourselves. Or do you not realize this about yourselves, that Jesus Christ is in you?—unless indeed you fail to meet the test! 6 I hope you will find out that we have not failed the test. 7 But we pray to God that you may not do wrong—not that we may appear to have met the test, but that you may do what is right, though we may seem to have failed. 8 For we cannot do anything against the truth, but only for the truth.

    "Lev. 5:4-5" - 4 ‘Or if a person swears, speaking thoughtlessly with his lips to do evil or to do good, whatever it is that a man may pronounce by an oath, and he is unaware of it—when he realizes it, then he shall be guilty in any of these matters. 5 ‘And it shall be, when he is guilty in any of these matters, that he shall confess that he has sinned in that thing (usually when someone THINKS something, they wind up doing it, anyway, it's almost doing it in your mind without getting caught)

    "Lev. 6:3-5" - 3 or if he has found what was lost and lies concerning it, and swears falsely—in any one of these things that a man may do in which he sins: 4 then it shall be, because he has sinned and is guilty, that he shall restore what he has stolen, or the thing which he has extorted, or what was delivered to him for safekeeping, or the lost thing which he found, 5 or all that about which he has sworn falsely. He shall restore its full value, add one-fifth more to it, and give it to whomever it belongs, on the day of his trespass offering.

    "Lev. 19:11-13" - 11 Do not steal. Do not deceive or cheat one another. 12 “Do not bring shame on the name of your God by using it to swear falsely. I am the Lord. 13 “Do not defraud or rob your neighbor. “Do not make your hired workers wait until the next day to receive their pay.

    "Num. 30:2" (NIV) - When a man makes a vow to the Lord or takes an oath to obligate himself by a pledge, he must not break his word but must do everything he said.

    "Matt. 5:33" - 32 But I say unto you, That whosoever shall put away his wife, saving for the cause of fornication, causeth her to commit adultery: and whosoever shall marry her that is divorced committeth adultery. 33 Again, ye have heard that it hath been said by them of old time, Thou shalt not forswear thyself, but shalt perform unto the Lord thine oaths: 34 But I say unto you, Swear not at all; neither by heaven; for it is God's throne: 35 Nor by the earth; for it is his footstool: neither by Jerusalem; for it is the city of the great King. 36 Neither shalt thou swear by thy head, because thou canst not make one hair white or black. 37 But let your communication be, Yea, yea; Nay, nay: for whatsoever is more than these cometh of evil.

    "James 5:12" - 12 Above all, my brothers and sisters, do not swear—not by heaven or by earth or by anything else. All you need to say is a simple “Yes” or “No.” Otherwise you will be condemned.

    "Heb. 4:16" - Let us therefore come boldly unto the throne of grace, that we may obtain mercy, and find grace to help in time of need.

    "Phil. 4:5" - Let your gentleness be evident to all. The Lord is near.

    "Eph. 6:19-21" - 10 Finally, my brethren, be strong in the Lord and in the power of His might. 11 Put on the whole armor of God, that you may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil. 12 For we do not wrestle against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this age,[c] against spiritual hosts of wickedness in the heavenly places. 13 Therefore take up the whole armor of God, that you may be able to withstand in the evil day, and having done all, to stand. 14 Stand therefore, having girded your waist with truth, having put on the breastplate of righteousness, 15 and having shod your feet with the preparation of the gospel of peace; 16 above all, taking the shield of faith with which you will be able to quench all the fiery darts of the wicked one. 17 And take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God; 18 praying always with all prayer and supplication in the Spirit, being watchful to this end with all perseverance and supplication for all the saints— 19 and for me, that utterance may be given to me, that I may open my mouth boldly to make known the mystery of the gospel, 20 for which I am an ambassador in chains; that in it I may speak boldly, as I ought to speak. 21 But that you also may know my affairs and how I am doing, Tychicus, a beloved brother and faithful minister in the Lord, will make all things known to you; 22 whom I have sent to you for this very purpose, that you may know our affairs, and that he may comfort your hearts. 23 Peace to the brethren, and love with faith, from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. 24 Grace be with all those who love our Lord Jesus Christ in sincerity.

    "1 Pet. 1:25" - But the word of the Lord endures forever.

    "Heb. 6:13-15" - 13 For when God made the promise to Abraham, since He could swear by no one greater, He swore by Himself, 14 saying, “ I will surely bless you and I will surely multiply you.” 15 And so, having patiently waited, he obtained the promise.

    Heb. 6:16-17" - 13 For when God made promise to Abraham, because he could swear by no greater, he sware by himself, 14 Saying, Surely blessing I will bless thee, and multiplying I will multiply thee. 15 And so, after he had patiently endured, he obtained the promise. 16 For men verily swear by the greater: and an oath for confirmation is to them an end of all strife. 17 Wherein God, willing more abundantly to shew unto the heirs of promise the immutability of his counsel, confirmed it by an oath: 18 That by two immutable things, in which it was impossible for God to lie, we might have a strong consolation, who have fled for refuge to lay hold upon the hope set before us:

    "Matt 10:22" - 16 “I am sending you out like sheep among wolves. Therefore be as shrewd as snakes and as innocent as doves. 17 Be on your guard; you will be handed over to the local councils and be flogged in the synagogues. 18 On my account you will be brought before governors and kings as witnesses to them and to the Gentiles. 19 But when they arrest you, do not worry about what to say or how to say it. At that time you will be given what to say, 20 for it will not be you speaking, but the Spirit of your Father speaking through you. 21 “Brother will betray brother to death, and a father his child; children will rebel against their parents and have them put to death. 22 You will be hated by everyone because of me, but the one who stands firm to the end will be saved. 23 When you are persecuted in one place, flee to another. Truly I tell you, you will not finish going through the towns of Israel before the Son of Man comes. 24 “The student is not above the teacher, nor a servant above his master. 25 It is enough for students to be like their teachers, and servants like their masters. If the head of the house has been called Beelzebul, how much more the members of his household! 26 “So do not be afraid of them, for there is nothing concealed that will not be disclosed, or hidden that will not be made known.

    "See Acts 7, life/death of Stephen" - http://www.biblegateway.com/r...

    "Gen. 2-3" - By the seventh day God had finished the work he had been doing; so on the seventh day he rested from all his work. 3 Then God blessed the seventh day and made it holy, because on it he rested from all the work of creating that he had done.

    "Matt 4" - http://www.biblegateway.com/p...

    "Revelation 10.1." - And I saw another mighty angel come down from heaven, clothed with a cloud: and a rainbow was upon his head, and his face was as it were the sun, and his feet as pillars of fire:

    You do realize that the IRS is a private entity with no real legal authority until a government official gives it to them. It was a temporary creation during the Civil War era to collect taxes for the war. So was taxing income. "To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water," but the IRS stayed and so did the income tax, being that Lincoln was murdered, at the time at 3%, under the religious limitation of I believe 10%, and under Constitutional law to be apportioned equally. Most don't actually quality for taxation, though I forget the reason; and I recall there being a dispute over whether the 1913 income tax was ratified, probably BECAUSE it was a progressive tax.

    Anyway, I'm not sure what the point is of this post. All these mentioned came about 49 years after the above letter was written, 48 years after his death, 9 years after Lincoln's untimely demise. I was going to refer to Mr. Bouvier, but then I find this

    John Bouvier (1787–1851), American jurist and legal lexicographer, was born in Codognan, France.

    In 1802 his family, who were Quakers (his mother was a member of the well-known Benezet family), emigrated to America and settled in Philadelphia. In 1808, he began a printing business, and in 1810, he wed Elizabeth Widdifield, with whom he had one daughter, Hannah Mary Bouvier. Bouvier became a citizen of the United States in 1812, and thereafter had varied experiences as proprietor of a book shop and as a country editor before he was admitted to the bar in 1818, under the tutelage of Andrew Stuart.

    He attained high standing in his profession, was recorder of Philadelphia in 1836, and from 1838 until his death was an associate justice of the court of criminal sessions in that city. He was best known, however, for his able legal writings.

    Dissatisfied with the tendency of treatises to focus on British laws no longer applicable to the United States, Bouvier set out to write his own American law dictionary. His Law Dictionary Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States of America and of the Several States of the American Union (1839, revised and brought up to date by Francis Rawle, under the title of Bouvier's Law Dictionary, 2 vols, 1897) was well received, garnering praise even from Justices then sitting on the United States Supreme Court. Bouvier also published an edition of Matthew Bacon's Abridgment of the Law (10 vols, 1842-1846), and a compendium of American law entitled The Institutes of American Law (4 vols, 1851; new ed. 2 vols, 1876). New editions of his Law Dictionary were put out by Bouvier in 1843 and 1848, and by his successors in interest following his death in 1851.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/...
    Sorry, that was quickest


    Inside the online edition of the title book was a stamp of Feb 1, 1933. I can't tell atm when this one was actually written and by whom, 1874, 1897, 1933?

    Anyway, it seems Jefferson felt that authorities quickly began to abuse their powers through the commerce clause and general welfare, stripping away natural rights to ownership and sovereignty. He suggests monarchy, but alternative characterization is a dictatorship.
    (more)
  • Torchmanner ~PWCM~JLA 2012/07/18 23:24:44
    Torchmanner ~PWCM~JLA
    +2
    If he could see them now.
  • rocat 2012/07/18 23:11:34
    rocat
    +2
    hmmm...

    now why would he concern himself...
    with such notions???

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