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History on Roman Baths,Aquaducts, and the Goddess Sulis Minerva.

☥☽✪☾DAW ☽✪☾ 2011/04/08 04:41:41
Related Topics: Testament, Marijuana, Oil, Style
If there is magic on this planet, it is contained in water.
A bath and a tenderloin steak. Those are the high points of a man's life
Water is life's mater and matrix, mother and medium. There is no life without water.
Water has no taste, no color, no odor; it cannot be defined, art relished while ever mysterious. Not necessary to life, but rather life itself. It fills us with a gratification that exceeds the delight of the senses
cleanliness is next to goddess
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two thousand years ago, the Roman Empire was the most powerful civilization on Earth, stretching from North Africa and Asia Minor across Europe to the British Isles. For more than 1000 years The Romans unified these diverse lands their mastery of engineering.

unified diverse lands mastery engineering nbsp nbsp nbsp nbsp nbsp

The great and highly advanced Roman waterway system known as the Aqueducts, are among the greatest achievements in the ancient world. The running water, indoor plumbing and sewer system carrying away disease from the population within the Empire wasn't surpassed in capability until very modern times. The Aqueducts, being the most visible and glorious piece of the ancient water system, stand as a testament to Roman engineering. Some of these ancient structures are still in use today in various capacities.

glorious piece ancient water testament roman engineering ancient structures capacities

The aqueducts were built from a combination of stone, brick and the special volcanic cement pozzuolana. While their visible remains leave a definite impression, the great bulk of the Roman waterway system ran below ground. Channels bored through rock, or dug below the surface carried water where it was convenient and possible. Of the approximately 260 miles in the aqueduct system, only 30 miles consisted of the visible, mammoth arched structures. The aqueducts were built only to carry the flow of water in areas where digging, burrowing, or surface grades presented problems, such as valleys. The entire system relied upon various gradients and the use of gravity to maintain a continuous flow; and the engineering at the time was remarkable. Without the aqueducts it would've been impossible to maintain the flow of water at the proper grades required.

When water reached Rome it flowed into enormous cisterna maintained on the highest ground. These large reservoirs held the water supply for the city and were connected to a vast network of lead pipes. Everything from public fountains, baths and private villas could tap into the network, sometimes provided a fee was paid. The water system was as politically motivated as any other massive public works project. Providing additional sources of incoming flow, feeding the baths or simply providing water access to more of the populace could grant great prestige


flow feeding baths simply providing water access populace grant prestige

Many of Rome's engineering secrets originated in one of its most important institutions: the Roman bath. A vital focus for leisure and social interaction, the public bathhouse incorporated intricate systems for plumbing and heating, sophisticated vaulted ceilings, and a revolutionary new building material we now call concrete. These buildings represented a new concept of luxury and sophistication in an age more often marked by violence and squalor. Indeed, the bathhouse was one of Rome's most effective tools for converting its conquered subjects to the Roman way of life. Supported by generous state subsidies, the bath functioned as pleasure palace, public health facility and community center in every town under Roman rule.

After a morning's work at the office or shop, most Roman's enjoyed spending the afternoon at the thermae or public bath. They were a social meeting place. Both men and women enjoyed coming to the baths not only to get clean but to meet with friends, exercise, or read at the library.

enjoyed baths clean meet friends exercise read library nbsp nbsp

The Greeks and Romans like wise considered sex to be a natural, pleasurable activity and did not associate it with guilt and had no concept of sin. The ancient Babylonian, Arabic and Indian cultures had the same attitudes, as did Shamanic cultures that predated all these civilizations the world over.

The Greeks and Roman societies used massage for health and for pleasure. Hippocrates, the father of Medicine, wrote in 460 BC that:

"The physician must be experienced in many things, but assuredly in rubbing".

Herodotus, the teacher of Hippocrates, wrote about the benefits of massage.

Both Herodotus and Hippocrates believed that all doctors needed to know massage for healing.

The baths had hot and cold pools, towels, steam rooms, saunas, exercise rooms, and hair cutting salons. They had reading rooms and libraries, as among the freeborn, who had the right to frequent baths, the majority could read.

Generally, Romans would first go to the unctuarium where they had oil rubbed onto their skin and would then exercise in one of the exercise yards. From here they would move to the tepidarium or warm room where they would lie around chatting with their friends. Next, it was on to the caldarium, similar to a Turkish bath, hot and steamy. Here they sat and perspired, scraping their skin with a strigil, a curved metal tool. Attendants would serve them snacks and drinks. Finally came a dip in the calidarium (hot bath) and a quick dip in the frigidarium (cold bath). After swimming, the bather might enjoy a massage where he might have oils and perfumes rubbed into his skin.

bath swimming bather enjoy massage oils perfumes rubbed skin nbsp

Feeling clean and relaxed, the Roman might drift through the beautiful gardens decorated with mosaics and colossal scruptures or enjoy athletic events in a theaterlike rotunda.

The largest of all Roman baths was the Diocletian, completed in A.D. 305
athletic events theaterlike rotunda largest roman baths diocletian completed 305nbsp

The Roman baths used the Hypocaust system for heating the building and the pools. This underfloor heating system had hot air heated from the basement fires flowing between the brick or concrete columns which support the ground floor. The the warm air flows through wall ducts into the rooms at the baths and quickly heats them. In some baths the floors would be so hot that the bathers would have to wear wooden sandels to stop their feet from being burnt. The fires in the basement were stocked by firebringers or workers of the baths.

The baths were generally crowded but the people loved them.

stocked firebringers workers nbspof baths baths generally crowded people loved

At one time, there were as many as 900 public baths in ancient Rome. Small ones held about 300 people, and the big ones held 1500 people or more! Some Roman hospitals even had their own bathhouses

The baths were not free and children were not permitted.



people 1500 people roman hospitals bathhouses baths free children permitted

All bathhouses had large public latrines which were, in effect, the first flush toilets. These toilets were an integral part of the plumbing system as well as another communal area in which to sit and chat. There was a continuous water flow underneath the seats, the whole being flushed away after use into the municipal drain and thence to the river.


chat nbsp continuous water flow seats flushed municipal drain river

one reason the Romans loved Baths so much it was an important activity
also it was to honor one of the more important Goddess Sulis Minerva
Goddess of Springs ,Bath And healing

activity honor important goddess sulis minerva goddess springs bath healing


Sulis is associated with the Roman goddesses Coventina and Nemetona, who were also worshipped at Bath. She has a connection to Brigit, who was associated with holy wells of healing water in Ireland. Sulis, like Brigit, was served by priestesses who kept her eternal flame burning. At Aquae Sulis as well as on the continent, she appears in multiple forms, the three-part Celtic Goddess “Suleviae.
aquae sulis continent appears multiple forms three-part celtic goddess suleviae

The Romans built an imposing temple at the springs in honor of Sulis. They constructed sumptuous bath buildings, a great altar and a reservoir for the sacred spring water. The bathing complex was designed so that the visitor could look from the main hall of baths to the actual spring, bubbling up from the earth. The bathing pools were fed with a constant flow of water through lead pipes which still function today, and the largest bath was lined with 42 sheets of lead whose combined weight exceeded 8 ½ tons.


The hot mineral waters at Bath contained genuine therapeutic properties for certain types of afflictions. There was a close link between healing, regeneration and fertility, and patrons of the baths sought the waters for those benefits. Women patrons sought help for child-bearing and lactation disorders. Studies of the waters of Bath have revealed the presence of 43 different minerals, including iron, magnesium, potassium, copper and radium. Although the early people who came to the spa for healing had no way to determine the nature of these minerals, the springs have been venerated as a healing site since Neolithic times.
determine nature minerals springs venerated healing site neolithic times nbsp
Ritual procedures at Bath included immersion in the hot waters, drinking the sacred waters and sleeping at the shrine in the hopes of a curative vision. Sacrifices and festivals were also held, and offerings of money, jewels, shoes, spindle-whorls and coins have been found, as well as moulds for making amulets to be sold to patrons. The most common mould was of a solar wheel.

coins moulds amulets sold patrons nbspthe common mould solar wheel
Archaeologists have determined that the hot mineral springs at Bath were in use at least 10,000 years ago. The first to use the spa were Neolithic hunter-gatherer tribes. The Celts, who arrived in England around 700 BCE, are believed to have built the first shrine structures at the springs.

The Romans, who arrived in Britain around 43 CE, took over the Celtic shrine, and called the spa at Bath “Aquae Sulis,” the waters of Sulis. A quarter of a million gallons of hot mineral water (120 degrees Fahrenheit) flowed daily out of the hot springs.
mineral water 120 degrees fahrenheit flowed daily hot springs nbsp
Evidence of the pre-Roman sanctity of the springs is shown by the presence of Celtic coins, cast into the water as votive offerings.

Throwing Coins into Springs or wells or bodies of water was
said to be good luck and Sulis would sometimes grant wishes to those
who honored her

springs wells bodies water luck sulis nbspwould grant honored hernbsp



Read More: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/lostempires/roman/toi...

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  • mk, Smartass Oracle 2012/05/29 16:00:43
  • sjalan 2012/05/04 08:36:53
    Water is life's mater and matrix, mother and medium. There is no life without...
    sjalan
    Great blog DAW.
  • ☥☽✪☾DAW... sjalan 2012/05/04 12:57:05
    ☥☽✪☾DAW ☽✪☾
    +1
    i like mixing education with knowledge of a Goddess its cool
  • sjalan ☥☽✪☾DAW... 2012/05/04 20:48:37
    sjalan
    +1
    I really liked the way you did it.

    I have a question for you to consider, Did you ever think of becoming an author on the subject of ancient gods and goddesses and their effects on modern religion? Just a thought.
  • ☥☽✪☾DAW... sjalan 2012/05/04 20:49:53
    ☥☽✪☾DAW ☽✪☾
    light bulb green

    now thats an idea
    but i wouldnt know where to start to get published or anything
    light bulb green
  • sjalan ☥☽✪☾DAW... 2012/05/04 21:07:43
    sjalan
    You have a huge amount of material it is very obvious to all who read your posts. I would suggest doing what you do best, research. Here is a start.

    http://www.writeandpublishyou...

    There are several ways to get it published as well. Speciality publishers do a good job if you have a good book. You can get it published online by Barnes & Nobel or Amazon or Google too. Lots of ways to get published. Again, it is necessary to do your research to find the best way to get in the door. Books with pictures are always very well liked as they connect the reader visually with the printed word.

    Just some stuff for thought. Talk it over with your GF. She may have some clues too.

    Oh How is your jaw?
  • ☥☽✪☾DAW... sjalan 2012/05/04 21:38:33
    ☥☽✪☾DAW ☽✪☾
    oh its better now i lost three teeth i had to have the dentist yank htem they were beyond repair

    http://www.blogger.com/profil...
    my blog site
  • sjalan ☥☽✪☾DAW... 2012/05/04 22:15:24
    sjalan
    +1
    Frankly you have enough material there to write several books and maybe a couple of very good movie scripts. I've read through several of them and I what I see is a pattern of exactitude of form always going back to the basic truth that our planet is our largest and most important gift. To preserve and protect.

    Seems to me you have a title to your book already.

    Our Mother Earth - Gaea

    with a subtitle

    NOT OURS to destroy but to perserve and protect.

    This may sound corny but the song from Pocahontas "Colors of the Wind" reflects that train of thought that our planet is our to protect.

  • Tomus Megalomania 2012/04/29 11:55:52
    A bath and a tenderloin steak. Those are the high points of a man's life
    Tomus Megalomania
    Definitely one of the high points of ancient civilization.
  • john 2012/04/28 19:54:45
    cleanliness is next to goddess
    john
    we went to Bath, England and saw the roman bathes awesome... roman bathes bath england roman bathes bath england beautiful place
  • jumpboots 187th PIR 2011/11/18 03:48:05
    Water is life's mater and matrix, mother and medium. There is no life without...
    jumpboots 187th PIR
    Water,water everywhere!"But not a drop to drink. middle of the ocean
  • Noel16161 2011/11/18 00:23:00
    Water is life's mater and matrix, mother and medium. There is no life without...
    Noel16161
    The Romans had it going on!
  • David (oYo) 2011/11/17 22:56:18
  • ☥☽✪☾DAW... David (... 2011/11/17 23:03:06
    ☥☽✪☾DAW ☽✪☾
    i know i added a small bit on the Goddess as well
  • David (... ☥☽✪☾DAW... 2011/11/18 11:27:19
  • ☥☽✪☾DAW... David (... 2011/11/18 14:00:59
    ☥☽✪☾DAW ☽✪☾
    Oh i plan to visit Uk must make a trip to Stonehenge
  • David (... ☥☽✪☾DAW... 2011/11/18 14:45:23
  • ☥☽✪☾DAW... David (... 2011/11/18 14:49:31
    ☥☽✪☾DAW ☽✪☾
    oh theres many places i wish to see the healing springs in ireland the pyramids Espally since im Egyptian/Kemetic Pagan that is like Holy Ground to us and there are alot of of Egyptian/Kemetic Pagans


    kemetic pagan
  • David (... ☥☽✪☾DAW... 2011/11/18 15:00:25
  • Happy 2011/11/17 20:23:15
    Water is life's mater and matrix, mother and medium. There is no life without...
    Happy
    +1
    I really love water, it is refreshing to swim in and sometimes i really wish i could live underwater, which is probably why my favorite god is Poseidon. I also really love learning about new gods, Thanks Daw :)
  • ☥☽✪☾DAW... Happy 2011/11/17 20:32:13
    ☥☽✪☾DAW ☽✪☾
    +1
    http://www.sodahead.com/unite... Poseidon Greek God of the Ocean & The Odyssey
  • D.C. Willis 2011/11/17 16:47:07
    cleanliness is next to goddess
    D.C. Willis
    +1
    Great blog my friend!

    I have watched several of the documentaries on Roman and the aqueducts. To me this type of information is interesting. Thanks!
  • ☥☽✪☾DAW... D.C. Wi... 2011/11/17 16:48:08
    ☥☽✪☾DAW ☽✪☾
    +1
    Figured a nice Educational Topic would be Refreshing change
  • D.C. Wi... ☥☽✪☾DAW... 2011/11/17 16:58:45
    D.C. Willis
    +1
    Yes, it is very refreshing. Thanks!

    maui blue_vodka
  • ronbo51 2011/11/17 16:40:17
    Water is life's mater and matrix, mother and medium. There is no life without...
    ronbo51
    after a day working rows, tilling and planting- i head to my Cal Spa
    hydro therapy spa treatment- 95 deg temp and bottle of cab. works wonders.gets rid of backaches and sore muscles. and also relaxes.
    Romans definitely had the right idea . cal spa hot tub
  • Ron 2011/05/24 19:03:28
    Water has no taste, no color, no odor; it cannot be defined, art relished whi...
    Ron
    +1
    This was a GREAT POST!!!! I enjoyed it tremendously. I Spent some time in Germany and in a city called Baden Baden (Bath Bath). I was told that the hot springs were used by the Romans and are still in use. I was able to enjoy them only one afternoon. It was great. I don't know how hot the springs were, but you had to enter them very slowly to let your body get used to the heat.
  • D.C. Wi... Ron 2011/11/17 16:43:22
    D.C. Willis
    Yes, I was there also it is pretty cool.

    They also have similar setup at Bad Munster and I lived so close that I would go running there in the mornings.

    Bad_Munster
  • ELLIE 2011/05/09 07:14:52
    Water is life's mater and matrix, mother and medium. There is no life without...
    ELLIE
    There is a lot more the romans did,but I do like a shower in the meantime
  • unreligious 2011/05/09 01:15:27
    Water is life's mater and matrix, mother and medium. There is no life without...
    unreligious
    Good post, of course when I fished reading it I had to go get a drink of water. It should be pointed out that in the pictures of Bath that you used to illustrate your post only the water and surrounding floors are Roman. The rest was built in the 1800 to look Roman.
  • ☥☽✪☾DAW... unrelig... 2011/05/09 05:02:18
    ☥☽✪☾DAW ☽✪☾
    +1
    couldnt find original photos i tried to show how it used to look
  • Mayday ☥☽✪☾DAW... 2011/11/17 17:33:13
    Mayday
    +1
    Wonderful presentation of engineering, aesthetics and culture, DAW.

    I walked across the Pont du Gard in 1995. How magnifique this structure is... pont du gard

    Another Roman Bath...
    www.musee-moyenage.fr/ang/hom... Museum of the Middle Ages - The Baths and Hôtel de Cluny

    cluny museum  roman bath
  • James 2011/05/08 23:01:30
    If there is magic on this planet, it is contained in water.
    James
    It grows and nurishes
  • ~Death and Darkness's Water... 2011/05/08 23:00:44
    If there is magic on this planet, it is contained in water.
    ~Death and Darkness's Waterfall~ BN-0 ~ WAWU
    One of your best posts ever!!! Thank you for writing this one DAW!!!!
  • Unintended 2011/05/04 22:26:41
    If there is magic on this planet, it is contained in water.
    Unintended
    +1
    Interesting post. I live in the city of Bath and have visited the Roman Baths on a few occasions (residents get in for free!)

    There is a legend that Bath was founded in around 860 BC when Prince Bladud, father of King Lear, caught leprosy. He was banished from the court and was forced to look after pigs. The pigs also had a skin disease but after they wallowed in hot mud they were cured. Prince Bladud followed their example and was also cured. Later he became king and founded the city of Bath.

    Of course that is just a story, not a grain of truth to it!
  • James 2011/05/04 21:29:05
    cleanliness is next to goddess
    James
    Too bad the Romans didn't invent the water treatment plant.

    romans invent water treatment plant water treatment plant
  • misterz 2011/05/03 17:36:18
    Water is life's mater and matrix, mother and medium. There is no life without...
    misterz
  • Torchmanner ~PWCM~JLA 2011/04/23 09:48:32
    cleanliness is next to goddess
    Torchmanner ~PWCM~JLA
    The Romans did not invent the aqueducts, they used technology that was already in use in Jerusalem. The first 'aqueduct' was built by a Godly man (727 BC):

    2Ki 20:20 ¶ And the rest of the acts of Hezekiah, and all his might, and how he made a pool, and a conduit, and brought water into the city, [are] they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah?
  • ☥☽✪☾DAW... Torchma... 2011/04/23 12:40:34
    ☥☽✪☾DAW ☽✪☾
    +4
    Actually the persians developed it first but the Romans Perfected it jerusalem came later
  • DollyCarcass♥ 2011/04/12 04:23:34
    If there is magic on this planet, it is contained in water.
    DollyCarcass♥
    That doesn't mean I want to go out and be naked. UR Takin A $hit in MY Temple.
    :D
    .
  • William 2011/04/08 17:05:20 (edited)
    Water has no taste, no color, no odor; it cannot be defined, art relished whi...
    William
    Interesting thought on this.

    Why would a deity of healing need at least 130 defixiones found at the baths, curses, if you will? Like the Docilianus Tablet? "Docilianus...to the most holy goddess Sulis. I curse him who has stolen my hooded cloak, whether man or woman, whether slave or free, that...the goddess Sulis inflict death upon...and not allow him sleep or children now and in the future, until he has brought my hooded cloak to the temple of her divinity."

    Pretty harsh for a triple goddess(es) of healing, childbirth, etc...

    Not to mention directly associated to Minerva, directly associated to Athena.

    The warrior aspect of Athena and Minerva may be represented by Sulis' powers to witness promises, catch thieves and find lost objects like the curse tablets at the baths. Those curses also indicate that Sulis was considered to have the power of retribution and many of the curses are asking Sulis Minerva to kill the guilty party.

    Must be more of that peaceful pagan nature showing there.

    So, the Romans stole a proto-Celtic goddess, changed it up a little to suit their tastes while keeping it generally the same to keep some of the conquered Bryths and Guals in line.

    http://www.bbc.co.uk/legacies... In case you don't believe that.

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