Gad or GodApart from Gad, the son of Yaʽqoḇ, there was another “Gad.” The astrologers of Baḇel called Jupiter (Zeus) by the name “Gad.” He was also well known among the Canaanites (the Kenaʽanites) where his name was often coupled with Baʽal, Baʽal Gad, which according to the Massoretic vowel pointing in the Book of Yehoshua is pronounced: Baʽal God. This same name is discovered in the ancient Germanic languages as Gott, Goda, Gode, God, Gud, Gade. And searching further back into its Indo-Germanic (Indo-European) roots, we find that it traces back to the word GHODH, which means “union,” even “sexual union.” No wonder this meaning is still evident in the Dutch and German gade. It is also not difficult to see it in the English “gadfly” and “gadding about.”
(גּד, gadh, “fortune”): A god of Good Luck, possibly the Hyades. The writer in Isa_65:11 (margin) pronounces a curse against such as are lured away to idolatry. The warning here, according to Cheyne, is specifically against the Samaritans, whom with their religion the Jews held in especial abhorrence. The charge would, however, apply just as well to superstitious and semi-pagan Jews. “But ye that forsake Yahweh, that forget my holy mountain, that prepare a table for Fortune, and that fill up mingled wine unto Destiny; I will destine you to the sword, and ye shall all bow down to the slaughter.” There is a play upon words here: “Fill up mingled wine unto Destiny” (מני, menı̄) and “I will destine מנתי, mānithı̄, i.e. portion out) you for the sword” (Isa_65:11, Isa_65:12). Gad and Meni mentioned here are two Syrian-deities (Cheyne, Book of the Prophet Isaiah, 198). Schürer (Gesch. d. jüd. Volkes, II, 34 note, and bibliography) disputes the reference of the Greek (Τύχη, Túchē) cult to the Semitic Gad, tracing it rather to the Syrian “Astarte” worship. The custom was quite common among heathen peoples of spreading before the gods tables laden with food (compare Herod. i. 181, 183; Smith, Rel. of Semites, Lect X).
Nothing is known of a Babylonian deity named Gad, but there are Aramean and Arabic equivalents. The origin may have been a personification of fortune and destiny, i.e. equivalent to the Fates. The Nabatean inscriptions give, in plural, form, the name of Meni. Achimenidean coins (Persian) are thought by some to bear the name of Meni. How widely spread these Syrian cults became, may be seen in a number of ways, e.g. an altar from Vaison in Southern France bearing an inscription:
“Belus Fortunae rector, Menisque Magister.”
Belus, signifying the Syrian Bel of Apamaea (Driver). Canaanitish place-names also attest the prevalence of the cult, as Baal-gad, at the foot of Hermen (Jos_11:17; Jos_12:7; Jos_13:5); Migdal-gad, possibly Mejdel near Askalon (Jos_15:37); Gaddi and Gaddiel (Num_13:10 f). In Talmudic literature the name of Gad is frequently invoked (compare McCurdy in Jewish Encyclopedia, V, 544). Indeed the words of Leah in Gen_30:11 may refer not to good fortune or luck but to the deity who was especially regarded as the patron god of Good Fortune (compare Kent, Student's Old Testament, I, 111). Similar beliefs were held among the Greeks and Romans, e.g. Hor. Sat. ii.8, 61:
“.... Fortuna, quis est crudelior in nos te deus?”
Cic. N.D. iii.24, 61:
“Quo in genere vel maxime est Fortuna numeranda.”
The question has also an astronomical interest. Arabic tradition styled the planet Jupiter the greater fortune, and Venus the lesser fortune. Jewish tradition identified Gad with the planet Jupiter, and it has been conjectured that Meni is to be identified with the planet Venus. See, however, ASTROLOGY, 10.