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Leftists-"Useful Idiots"

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vlkPkJInUmU&feature;=related

(I recommend watching the other 10 parts to this interview.)

As you have seen in the above video, the U.S.S.R. began a psychological war with the U.S. The precise time their attacks began is uncertain, as there are many cases of socialist uprisings throughout the 20th Century. The most likely range of time is during the second World War, when fierce tension between the U.S. and U.S.S.R. first began.

The ideological subversion they inflicted upon the people of the U.S., as well as other nations they targeted, was and is to change the perception of reality of the individual being indoctrinated. The end result is to have the enemy nation,(the U.S.) destroy itself from within, and for its residents to happily embrace tyranny from their enemy(U.S.S.R.) Most of the activity was carried out by advocates and practitioners of public opinion.
happily embrace tyranny enemyu activity carried advocates practitioners public opinion
happily embrace tyranny enemyu activity carried advocates practitioners public opinion
Ideological Subversion requires >four<strong> stages to complete.

*>Demoralization-<strong>Introduce and indoctrinate a generation with Marxist/Leninist ideology; along with any ideology that both attacks and undermines the principals of the U.S. It takes 15-20 years to educate a generation in our society, and therefore requires 15-20 for Demoralization stage to be completed.

*Destabalization-When the effects of Demoralization has reached the important essentials of a nation. It only takes about 2 to 5 years.

*Crisis-When despair and helplessness is the norm of society, and dependence on the government grows to the extreme.

*Normalization-When the psychological war is won, and when the tanks of the enemy are patrolling the streets of your neighborhood.


Roughly 20 years after the second world war(when the stage of Demoralization would be completed) did we not witness the random and strong rise of socialists in our communities? Did we not witness our soldiers, who gave their blood for us and our cause, attacked and spit on by the leftists? Did we not see civilians burning flags and attacking the principals of the United States? Did we not see the right to life challenged in the supreme court? Did we not witness morality hanged by the youth of the 60s?Have we not experienced the freedom of expression and opinion dampened by “political correctness”? Did we not experience our second amendment right challenged by our own countrymen for the first time? Have we not witnessed the indoctrination of our children in schools and college campuses? Have we not witnessed our elected officials attacking us and demeaning us to foreign leaders? Have leftists and socialists NOT been found in important positions of power, where they oversee our national essentials? Are not presently in a crisis where our elected officials are socialists, and advocating systems of socialism to “better the country“? Ae we not having to deal with these problems in our society today?


It is time for you to wake up. The wave of socialism did not arrive in our shores by coincidence. Those who cll themselves our enemy intentionally inflicted it upon us. The former KGB operative explained what is happening in our country in great detail, as he was one of the many carrying out these attacks against us.

If you consider yourself a Leftist(liberal, progressive), you are one of many casualties of this ongoing war. You must excuse me, as I’m compelled to expect what the KGB operative said to expect. I do not expect you to question your opinion in the face of profound evidence,as you are critically brainwashed. I do not expect you to wake up. The KGB operative explained that you are so indoctrinated, that you will not experience reality until the boot of tyranny is placed upon you. However, neither I, nor any other American can afford to experience tyranny with you, nor are we willing. We refuse to be placed in gulag systems ,experiencing “socialist equality“. We will not allow tyranny a haven in the nation we built. Save me your ignorant “dissent is real patriotism” illusion. You want socialism? Immigrate to Russia or China. Get the hell out.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5_K5_orMQRY
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  • trader Fay 2009/09/13 18:59:45
    trader
    +2
    Has nothing to do with my beliefs but with facts. Look it up.
  • Fay trader 2009/09/13 19:13:08
    Fay
    The fact is you are 100% certifiably wrong.
  • trader Fay 2009/09/13 19:23:28
    trader
    +3
    A political regime, usually totalitarian, ideologically based on centralized government and government control of business. Fascism

    A political system that promotes an authoritarian, centeralized government with control of businesses. Socialism
  • Fay trader 2009/09/13 19:53:30
    Fay
    Socialism does not mean government or state ownership. It does not mean a closed party-run system without democratic rights. Those things are the very opposite of socialism.

    "Socialism," as the American Socialist Daniel De Leon defined it, "is that social system under which the necessaries of production are owned, controlled and administered by the people, for the people, and under which, accordingly, the cause of political and economic despotism having been abolished, class rule is at end. That is socialism, nothing short of that." And we might add, nothing more than that!

    Remember: If it does not fit this description, it is not socialism—no matter who says different. Those who claim that socialism existed and failed in places like Russia and China simply do not know the facts.

    Socialism will be a society in which the things we need to live, work and control our own lives—the industries, services and natural resources—are collectively owned by all the people, and in which the democratic organization of the people within the industries and services is the government. Socialism means that government of the people, for the people and by the people will become a reality for the first time.
    You can read the whole article here http://www.slp.org/what_is.htm
    Military Diction...

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    Socialism does not mean government or state ownership. It does not mean a closed party-run system without democratic rights. Those things are the very opposite of socialism.

    "Socialism," as the American Socialist Daniel De Leon defined it, "is that social system under which the necessaries of production are owned, controlled and administered by the people, for the people, and under which, accordingly, the cause of political and economic despotism having been abolished, class rule is at end. That is socialism, nothing short of that." And we might add, nothing more than that!

    Remember: If it does not fit this description, it is not socialism—no matter who says different. Those who claim that socialism existed and failed in places like Russia and China simply do not know the facts.

    Socialism will be a society in which the things we need to live, work and control our own lives—the industries, services and natural resources—are collectively owned by all the people, and in which the democratic organization of the people within the industries and services is the government. Socialism means that government of the people, for the people and by the people will become a reality for the first time.
    You can read the whole article here http://www.slp.org/what_is.htm
    Military Dictionary: fascism
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    Home > Library > History, Politics & Society > US Military Dictionaryn. 1. an authoritarian and nationalistic right-wing system of government and social organization.

    2. (in general use) extreme right-wing, authoritarian, or intolerant views or practice. The term fascism was first used of the totalitarian right-wing nationalist regime of Benito Mussolini in Italy (1922-43), and the regime of the Nazis in Germany were also Fascist. Fascism tends to include a belief in the supremacy of one national or ethnic group, a contempt for democracy, an insistence on obedience to a powerful leader, and a strong demagogic approach.

    fascist n. fascistic adj.

    Etymology: from Italian fascismo, from fascio 'bundle, political group, ' from Latin fascis 'bundle.'
    See the Introduction, Abbreviations and Pronunciation for further details.

    Holocaust: Fascism
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    Home > Library > History, Politics & Society > Encyclopedia of Holocaust
    A political, cultural, and intellectual movement that flourished in twentieth century Europe. Most notably, adherents of Fascism ruled Italy from 1922 to 1945, but in fact, the word Fascism actually describes a range of extreme right-wing movements that were active in various countries throughout Europe and in other parts of the world.
    Fascism developed as a result of the social changes and intellectual revolution that took place in the Western world at the turn of the twentieth century. It was a type of original, modern thought that reflected change and the need for something new and different amongst the young people of Europe, who disdained their parents' middle class values. Fascist ideas spread all over Europe and gained force during the depression of the 1920s and 1930s.

    As an ideology, Fascism represents a synthesis of nationalism (devotion to one's nation as the highest ideal) and socialism (communal ownership of economic enterprises), and the rejection of materialism, liberalism, Marxism, and democracy. It calls for the absolute political rule of the leaders, and deplores the democratic ideal of the common people making important decisions. The state government is how national unity---the major Fascist value---is manifested. Fascism tries to create a new civilization, based on the total community, in which all sectors and classes of the population will find their niche. As a result, the nation will be revitalized and strengthened, and each individual will be nothing more than a cell in the communal organism. Fascism even poses as a type of spiritual revolution.

    Fascism came up with two tools that would help maintain "the unity of the nation"---corporatism and totalitarianism. In a corporative state, a country's political, social, and economic power is held by a group of corporations, made up both of employers and employees. This group of corporations plans the economy and settles differences between social classes. In a totalitarian state, the government has total control over and can intervene in every aspect of an individual's life. Using these two instruments, the nation would easily be maintained as the highest ideal.

    The phenomenon of Fascism evolved out of an awareness of a major societal problem: the exclusion of the working man from the community ideal. According to Fascist ideology, the nation will not become a completed unit as long as the working class is not assimilated into it, and until a way is found to harness each individual in a joint effort to achieve the common good. Fascism is also a reflection of certain values of the time: namely, emotions and spontaneity as opposed to reason---reason being the basis of democratic thought. In Fascism, the idea that emotions and the subconscious are more important in politics than reason is totally acceptable. An offshoot of this "cult of the emotions" is the Fascist philosophy of action, energy, intuition, and violence.

    Although Fascism was put into power in Italy under the Fascist leader, Benito Mussolini, the movement made waves all over Europe---and was different in each country it visited. Fascism was found in France, where the first Fascist movement outside Italy was founded in 1925; in Great Britain; Belgium; Spain, where the Fascist Francisco Franco won the Spanish Civil War and took control of the government in 1939; and Romania. Nazism was an extreme form of Fascism, whose adherents took on Antisemitism as a central component of their ideology. However, antisemitism is not a fundamental element in pure Fascist ideology. The racist nationalism invoked in Fascism is definitely receptive to antisemitic tendencies, but not a necessary part of Fascist belief. In its early period, Italian Fascism did not include antisemitism, and only when Mussolini allied himself with Hitler did he begin touting antisemitic rhetoric.

    Political Dictionary: fascism
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    Home > Library > History, Politics & Society > Political Dictionary

    A right-wing nationalist ideology or movement with a totalitarian and hierarchical structure that is fundamentally opposed to democracy and liberalism. In ancient Rome, the authority of the state was symbolized by the fasces, a bundle of rods bound together (signifying popular unity) with a protruding axe-head (denoting leadership). As such, it was appropriated by Mussolini to label the movement he led to power in Italy in 1922, but was subsequently generalized to cover a whole range of movements in Europe during the inter-war period. These include the National Socialists in Germany, as well as others such as Action Française, the Arrow Cross in Hungary, or the Falangists in Spain. In the post-war period, the term has been used, often prefixed by ‘neo’, to describe what are viewed as successors to these movements, as well as Peronism and, most recently, some movements in ex-Communist countries, such as Pamyat in Russia (see extreme-right parties). Given such diversity, does the term have any meaning?

    Genuinely fascist ideologies are: monist, that is to say, based upon the notion that there are fundamental and basic truths about humanity and the environment which do not admit to question; simplistic, in the sense of ascribing complex phenomena to single causes and advancing single remedies; fundamentalist, that is, involving a division of the world into ‘good’ and ‘bad’ with nothing in between; and conspiratorial, that is, predicated on the existence of a secret world-wide conspiracy by a hostile group seeking to manipulate the masses to achieve and/or maintain a dominant position.

    In content, these ideologies are distinguished by five main components. (1) Extreme nationalism, the belief that there is a clearly defined nation which has its own distinctive characteristics, culture, and interests, and which is superior to others. (2) An assertion of national decline—that at some point in the mythical past the nation was great, with harmonious social and political relationships, and dominant over others, and that subsequently it has disintegrated, become internally fractious and divided, and subordinate to lesser nations. (3) This process of national decline is often linked to a diminution of the racial purity of the nation. In some movements the nation is regarded as co-extensive with the race (the nation race), while in others, hierarchies of races are defined generically with nations located within them (the race nation); in virtually all cases, the view is taken that the introduction of impurities has weakened the nation and been responsible for its plight. (4) The blame for national decline and/or racial miscegenation is laid at the door of a conspiracy on the part of other nations/races seen as competing in a desperate struggle for dominance. (5) In that struggle, both capitalism and its political form, liberal democracy, are seen as mere divisive devices designed to fragment the nation and subordinate it further in the world order.

    With regard to prescriptive content, the first priority is the reconstitution of the nation as an entity by restoring its purity. The second is to restore national dominance by reorganizing the polity, the economy, and society. Means to this end include variously: (1) the institution of an authoritarian and antiliberal state dominated by a single party; (2) total control by the latter over political aggregation, communication, and socialization; (3) direction by the state of labour and consumption to create a productionist and self-sufficient economy; and (4) a charismatic leader embodying the ‘real’ interests of the nation and energizing the masses. With these priorities fulfilled, the nation would then be in a position to recapture its dominance, if necessary by military means.

    Such priorities were explicit in the inter-war fascist movements, which indulged in racial/ethnic ‘cleansing’, established totalitarian political systems, productionist economies, and dictatorships, and of course went to war in pursuit of international dominance. But such parties can no longer openly espouse these extremes, and national/racial purity now takes the form of opposition to continuing immigration and demands for repatriation; totalitarianism and dictatorship have been replaced by lesser demands for a significant strengthening in the authority of the state, allegedly within a democratic framework; productionism has become interventionism; and military glory has been largely eschewed.

    — Stan Taylor

    Britannica Concise Encyclopedia: fascism
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    Home > Library > Miscellaneous > Britannica Concise Encyclopedia

    Philosophy of government that stresses the primacy and glory of the state, unquestioning obedience to its leader, subordination of the individual will to the state's authority, and harsh suppression of dissent. Martial virtues are celebrated, while liberal and democratic values are disparaged. Fascism arose during the 1920s and '30s partly out of fear of the rising power of the working classes; it differed from contemporary communism (as practiced under Joseph Stalin) by its protection of business and landowning elites and its preservation of class systems. The leaders of the fascist governments of Italy (1922 – 43), Germany (1933 – 45), and Spain (1939 – 75) — Benito Mussolini, Adolf Hitler, and Francisco Franco — were portrayed to their publics as embodiments of the strength and resolve necessary to rescue their nations from political and economic chaos. Japanese fascists (1936 – 45) fostered belief in the uniqueness of the Japanese spirit and taught subordination to the state and personal sacrifice. See also totalitarianism; neofascism.
    For more information on fascism, visit Britannica.com.

    Philosophy Dictionary: fascism
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    Home > Library > History, Politics & Society > Philosophy Dictionary(Latin, fasces, the bundle of rods and axe carried before Roman consuls as insignia of authority) The loose amalgam of aspirations and influences crystallized in the early 20th-century governments of Mussolini in Italy, Hitler in Germany, and General Franco in Spain. Elements include nationalism; hostility to ideals of equality; hatred of minorities, degenerates, and deviants; élitism; hostility towards the ideals of liberalism, and in particular towards freedom of expression; the cult of the charismatic leader or Übermensch; belief in the destiny of the race; and a love of political symbolism such as uniforms and other emblems of militarism. The whole cocktail is animated by a belief in regeneration through energy and struggle.

    Columbia Encyclopedia: fascism
    Top Home > Library > Miscellaneous > Columbia Encyclopediafascism (făsh'ĭzəm) , totalitarian philosophy of government that glorifies the state and nation and assigns to the state control over every aspect of national life. The name was first used by the party started by Benito Mussolini, who ruled Italy from 1922 until the Italian defeat in World War II. However, it has also been applied to similar ideologies in other countries, e.g., to National Socialism in Germany and to the regime of Francisco Franco in Spain. The term is derived from the Latin fasces.
    Characteristics of Fascist Philosophy

    Fascism, especially in its early stages, is obliged to be antitheoretical and frankly opportunistic in order to appeal to many diverse groups. Nevertheless, a few key concepts are basic to it. First and most important is the glorification of the state and the total subordination of the individual to it. The state is defined as an organic whole into which individuals must be absorbed for their own and the state's benefit. This “total state” is absolute in its methods and unlimited by law in its control and direction of its citizens.

    A second ruling concept of fascism is embodied in the theory of social Darwinism. The doctrine of survival of the fittest and the necessity of struggle for life is applied by fascists to the life of a nation-state. Peaceful, complacent nations are seen as doomed to fall before more dynamic ones, making struggle and aggressive militarism a leading characteristic of the fascist state. Imperialism is the logical outcome of this dogma.

    Another element of fascism is its elitism. Salvation from rule by the mob and the destruction of the existing social order can be effected only by an authoritarian leader who embodies the highest ideals of the nation. This concept of the leader as hero or superman, borrowed in part from the romanticism of Friedrich Nietzsche, Thomas Carlyle, and Richard Wagner, is closely linked with fascism's rejection of reason and intelligence and its emphasis on vision, creativeness, and “the will.”

    The Fascist State

    Fascism has found adherents in all countries. Its essentially vague and emotional nature facilitates the development of unique national varieties, whose leaders often deny indignantly that they are fascists at all. In its dictatorial methods and in its use of brutal intimidation of the opposition by the militia and the secret police, fascism does not greatly distinguish itself from other despotic and totalitarian regimes. There are particular similarities with the Communist regime in the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin. However, unlike Communism, fascism abhors the idea of a classless society and sees desirable order only in a state in which each class has its distinct place and function. Representation by classes (i.e., capital, labor, farmers, and professionals) is substituted for representation by parties, and the corporative state is a part of fascist dogma.

    Although Mussolini's and Hitler's governments tended to interfere considerably in economic life and to regulate its process, there can be no doubt that despite all restrictions imposed on them, the capitalist and landowning classes were protected by the fascist system, and many favored it as an obstacle to socialization. On the other hand, the state adopted a paternalistic attitude toward labor, improving its conditions in some respects, reducing unemployment through large-scale public works and armament programs, and controlling its leisure time through organized activities.

    Many of these features were adopted by the Franco regime in Spain and by quasi-fascist dictators in Latin America (e.g., Juan Perón) and elsewhere. A variation of fascism was the so-called clerico-fascist system set up in Austria under Engelbert Dollfuss. This purported to be based on the social and economic doctrines enunciated by Pope Leo XIII and Pope Pius XI, which, however, were never put into operation.

    See totalitarianism.

    History

    Origins of Fascism

    While socialism (particularly Marxism) came into existence as a clearly formulated theory or program based on a specific interpretation of history, fascism introduced no systematic exposition of its ideology or purpose other than a negative reaction against socialist and democratic egalitarianism. The growth of democratic ideology and popular participation in politics in the 19th cent. was terrifying to some conservative elements in European society, and fascism grew out of the attempt to counter it by forming mass parties based largely on the middle classes and the petty bourgeoisie, exploiting their fear of political domination by the lower classes. Forerunners of fascism, such as Georges Boulanger in France and Adolf Stöker and Karl Lueger in Germany and Austria, in their efforts to gain political power played on people's fears of revolution with its subsequent chaos, anarchy, and general insecurity. They appealed to nationalist sentiments and prejudices, exploited anti-Semitism, and portrayed themselves as champions of law, order, Christian morality, and the sanctity of private property.

    Emergence after World War I

    The Russian Revolution (1917), the collapse of the Central Powers in 1918, and the disorders caused by Communist attempts to seize power in Germany, Italy, Hungary, and other countries greatly strengthened fascism's appeal to many sections of the European populace. In Italy, particularly, social unrest was combined with nationalist dissatisfaction over the government's failure to reap the promised fruits of victory after World War I. The action of Gabriele D'Annunzio in seizing Fiume (Rijeka) was one manifestation of the discontent existing in Italy. Appealing to the masses and especially to the lower middle class through demagogic promises of order and social justice, the fascists could depend upon support, financial and otherwise, from vested interests, who could not muster such popularity themselves.

    Governmental paralysis enabled Mussolini in 1922 to obtain the premiership by a show of force. As leader of his National Fascist party, he presented himself as the strong-armed savior of Italy from anarchy and Communism. Borrowing from Russian Communism a system of party organization based on a strict hierarchy and cells, which became typical of fascism everywhere, he made use of an elite party militia—the Black Shirts—to crush opposition and to maintain his power.

    In Germany at about the same time a fascist movement similar to that in Italy steadily gathered strength; it called itself the National Socialist German Workers' party (Nazi party). Its leader, Adolf Hitler, won support from a middle class ruined by inflation, from certain elements of the working class, especially the unemployed, and from discontented war veterans; he also gained the backing of powerful financial interests, to whom he symbolized stability and order. However, it was not until 1933 that Hitler could carry through his plans for making Germany a fascist state and the National Socialists the sole legal party in the country.

    The military aggression so inherent in fascist philosophy exploded in the Italian invasion (1935) of Ethiopia, the attack (1936) of the Spanish fascists (Falangists) on their republican government (see Spanish civil war), and Nazi Germany's systematic aggression in Central and Eastern Europe, which finally precipitated (1939) World War II.

    Fascism since World War II

    The Italian Social Movement (MSI), a minor neofascist party, was formed in Italy in 1946. It won wider support when the pervasive corruption of the governing parties was exposed in the early 1990s, and it became a partner in the conservative government formed after the 1994 elections. In 1995, however, the MSI dissolved itself as it was transformed into a new party headed by former MSI leader Gianfranco Fini and including the majority of former MSI members. Fini's right-wing National Alliance rejected fascist ideology, including anti-Semitism, and embraced democracy as one of its principles and has participated in center-right governing coalitions.

    In postwar West Germany, neofascism appeared in the form of the temporary growth of the nationalistic National Democratic party in the mid-1960s. Following German reunification, neo-Nazi groups in the country gained increased prominence, with new members being drawn to the organization as a result of social upheaval and economic dislocation, and the nation experienced an increase in related violence, especially attacks on immigrants and foreigners. Neo-Nazi groups also exist on a small scale in the United States, and right-wing nationalistic movements and parties in countries such as France, Russia, and some republics of the former Yugoslavia have political groups with elements of fascism. For many of these parties, however, ethnic and racial animosity is often more significant than fascist philosophy.

    Bibliography

    See H. Finer, Mussolini's Italy (1935, repr. 1965); R. Albrecht-Carrié, Italy from Napoleon to Mussolini (1961); H. Arendt, Origins of Totalitarianism (rev. ed. 1966); W. Laqueur and G. Mosse, ed., International Fascism (1966); W. Ebenstein, Today's Isms (7th ed. 1973); H. Lubasz, ed., Fascism: Three Major Regimes (1973); O. E. Schuddekopf, Fascism (1973); S. Larsen, ed., Who Were the Fascists? (1981); D. Muhlberger, ed., The Social Basis of European Fascist Movements (1987); G. L. Mosse, The Fascist Revolution: Toward a General Theory of Fascism (1999).


    -----------------------------...

    History Dictionary: fascism
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    Home > Library > History, Politics & Society > History Dictionary(fash-iz-uhm)

    A system of government that flourished in Europe from the 1920s to the end of World War II. Germany under Adolf Hitler, Italy under Mussolini, and Spain under Franco were all fascist states. As a rule, fascist governments are dominated by a dictator, who usually possesses a magnetic personality, wears a showy uniform, and rallies his followers by mass parades; appeals to strident nationalism; and promotes suspicion or hatred of both foreigners and “impure” people within his own nation, such as the Jews in Germany. Although both communism and fascism are forms of totalitarianism, fascism does not demand state ownership of the means of production, nor is fascism committed to the achievement of economic equality. In theory, communism opposes the identification of government with a single charismatic leader (the “cult of personality”), which is the cornerstone of fascism. Whereas communists are considered left-wing, fascists are usually described as right-wing.


    Today, the term fascist is used loosely to refer to military dictatorships, as well as governments or individuals that profess racism and that act in an arbitrary, high-handed manner.


    Word Tutor: fascism
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    IN BRIEF: A political theory advocating an authoritarian government.

    Fascism has rarely been a popular form of government among those ruled by it.

    Quotes About: Fascism
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    Home > Library > Literature & Language > Quotes AboutQuotes:

    "That which the Fascists hate above all else, is intelligence." - Miguel De Unamuno

    "Fascism is nothing but capitalist reaction." - Leon Trotsky

    "Fascism is capitalism plus murder." - Upton Sinclair

    "Fascism was a counter-revolution against a revolution that never took place." - Ignazio Silone

    "Fascism is not defined by the number of its victims, but by the way it kills them." - Jean-Paul Sartre

    "Fascism is a European inquietude. It is a way of knowing everything -- history, the State, the achievement of the proletarianization of public life, a new way of knowing the phenomena of our epoch." - J. A. Primo De Rivera



    See more famous quotes about Fascism

    Wikipedia: Fascism
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    Home > Library > Miscellaneous > WikipediaFor the Italian political movement of "Fascism", see Italian Fascism.
    For the book published by Oxford University Press, see Fascism (book).
    Part of the Politics series on
    Fascism

    Core tenets
    Nationalism · Authoritarianism · Third Position · Single party state · Dictatorship · Social Darwinism · Social interventionism · Indoctrination · Propaganda · Anti-intellectualism · Eugenics · Heroism · Militarism · Economic interventionism · Anti-communism
    Topics
    Definitions · Economics · Fascism and ideology · Fascism worldwide · Symbolism
    Ideas
    Class collaboration · Corporatism · Heroic capitalism · National socialism · National syndicalism · Populism · State capitalism · State socialism · Statism · Supercapitalism · Third Position · Totalitarianism · Yellow socialism
    Movements
    Arrow Cross Party · Austrofascism · Brazilian Integralism · Falange · 4th of August Regime · Iron Guard · Italian Fascism · Japanese fascism · Nazism · Rexism · Ustaše
    Persons
    Abba Ahimeir
    Corneliu Zelea Codreanu
    Adolf Hitler
    Ikki Kita
    Oswald Mosley
    Benito Mussolini
    José Antonio Primo de Rivera
    Konstantin Rodzaevsky
    Ante Pavelić
    Plinio Salgado

    Works
    The Doctrine of Fascism · Fascist manifesto · Mein Kampf · The Myth of the Twentieth Century
    Organizations
    Axis powers · Black Brigades · Blackshirts · Blueshirts · Redshirts · Fascist International · Grand Council of Fascism · Greenshirts · Italian Nationalist Association · Schutzstaffel · Sturmabteilung
    History
    Fascio · March on Rome · Beer Hall Putsch · Acerbo Law · Aventine Secession · Fascist Italy · Nazi Germany · March of the Iron Will · Congress of Verona · Italian Social Republic
    Lists
    Anti-fascists · British fascists · Fascists by country · Nazi ideologues
    Related topics
    Anti-fascism · Clerical fascism · Cryptofascism · Ecofascism · European fascist ideologies · Fascism (epithet) · Hitler salute · Left-wing fascism · Neo-Fascism · Quadrumvirs · Racism · Roman salute · Social fascism · Palingenetic ultranationalism

    Fascism portal
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    Fascism, pronounced /ˈfæʃɪzəm/, comprises a radical and authoritarian nationalist political ideology[1][2][3][4] and a corporatist economic ideology. [5] Fascists believe that nations and/or races are in perpetual conflict whereby only the strong can survive by being healthy, vital, and by asserting themselves in conflict against the weak.[6]

    Fascists advocate the creation of a single-party state.[7] Fascist governments forbid and suppress criticism and opposition to the government and the fascist movement.[8] Fascism opposes class conflict, blames capitalist liberal democracies for its creation and communists for exploiting the concept.[9]

    In the economic sphere, many fascist leaders have claimed to support a "Third Way" in economic policy, which they believed superior to both the rampant individualism of unrestrained capitalism and the severe control of state communism.[10][11] This was to be achieved by establishing significant government control over business and labour (Mussolini called his nation's system "the corporate state").[12][13] No common and concise definition exists for fascism and historians and political scientists disagree on what should be in any concise definition.[14]

    Following the defeat of the Axis powers in World War II and the publicity surrounding the atrocities committed during the period of fascist governments, the term fascist has been used as a pejorative word.[15]

    Contents [hide]
    1 Etymology
    2 Definitions
    2.1 Position in the political spectrum
    2.2 Fascist as epithet
    3 Historical causes of the rise of fascism
    4 Core tenets
    4.1 Nationalism
    4.1.1 Foreign policy
    4.2 Authoritarianism
    4.3 Social Darwinism
    4.4 Social interventionism
    4.4.1 Indoctrination
    4.4.2 Abortion, eugenics and euthanasia
    4.4.3 Culture and gender roles
    4.5 Economic policies
    4.5.1 National corporatism, national socialism and national syndicalism
    4.5.2 Economic planning
    4.5.3 Social welfare
    5 Racism and racialism
    6 Relation to religion
    7 Variations and subforms
    7.1 Italian Fascism
    7.2 Nazism (Germany)
    7.3 Iron Guard (Romania)
    7.4 Falangism (Spain)
    8 Para-fascism
    8.1 Austrian Fatherland Front
    8.2 Imperial Rule Assistance Association (Japan)
    9 References
    9.1 Notes
    9.2 Primary sources
    9.3 Secondary sources
    10 External links



    Etymology
    The term fascismo is derived from the Italian word fascio, which means "bundle" or group, and from the Latin word fasces; a fasces was a bundle of sticks used symbolically for the power through unity. [16][17] The fasces, which consisted of a bundle of rods that were tied around an axe, were an ancient Roman symbol of the authority of the civic magistrates; they were carried by his Lictors and could be used for corporal and capital punishment at his command.[17]

    Furthermore, the symbolism of the fasces suggested strength through unity: a single rod is easily broken, while the bundle is difficult to break.[18] This is a familiar theme throughout different forms of fascism; for example the Falange symbol is a bunch of arrows joined together by a yoke.[19]


    Definitions
    Main article: Definitions of fascism
    Historians, political scientists, and other scholars have engaged in long and furious debates concerning the exact nature of fascism.[20] Since the 1990s, scholars like Stanley Payne, Roger Eatwell, Roger Griffin and Robert O. Paxton have begun to gather a rough consensus on the system's core tenets. Each form of fascism is distinct, leaving many definitions as too wide or too narrow.[21][22]

    Griffin wrote:

    [Fascism is] a genuinely revolutionary, trans-class form of anti-liberal, and in the last analysis, anti-conservative nationalism. As such it is an ideology deeply bound up with modernization and modernity, one which has assumed a considerable variety of external forms to adapt itself to the particular historical and national context in which it appears, and has drawn a wide range of cultural and intellectual currents, both left and right, anti-modern and pro-modern, to articulate itself as a body of ideas, slogans, and doctrine. In the inter-war period it manifested itself primarily in the form of an elite-led "armed party" which attempted, mostly unsuccessfully, to generate a populist mass movement through a liturgical style of politics and a programme of radical policies which promised to overcome a threat posed by international socialism, to end the degeneration affecting the nation under liberalism, and to bring about a radical renewal of its social, political and cultural life as part of what was widely imagined to be the new era being inaugurated in Western civilization. The core mobilizing myth of fascism which conditions its ideology, propaganda, style of politics and actions is the vision of the nation's imminent rebirth from decadence.[23]

    Paxton wrote that fascism is:

    a form of political behavior marked by obsessive preoccupation with community decline, humiliation or victimhood and by compensatory cults of unity, energy and purity, in which a mass-based party of committed nationalist militants, working in uneasy but effective collaboration with traditional elites, abandons democratic liberties and pursues with redemptive violence and without ethical or legal restraints goals of internal cleansing and external expansion.[24]


    Position in the political spectrum
    The neutrality of this section is disputed. Please see the discussion on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until the dispute is resolved. (August 2009)

    Fascism is normally described as "extreme right"[25], but writers on the subject have often found placing fascism on a conventional left-right political spectrum difficult.[26] There is a scholarly consensus that fascism was influenced by both the left and the right.[27] A number of historians have regarded fascism either as a revolutionary centrist doctrine, as a doctrine which mixes philosophies of the left and the right, or as both of those things.[28][29][30]

    The historians Eugen Weber,[31] David Renton,[32] and Robert Soucy[33] view fascism as on the ideological right. Rod Stackelberg argues that fascism opposes egalitarianism (particularly racial) and democracy, which according to him are characteristics that make it an extreme right-wing movement.[34] Stanley Payne states that pre-war fascism found a coherent identity through alliances with right-wing movements[35] Roger Griffin argues that since the end of World War II, fascist movements have become intertwined with the radical right, describing certain groups as part of a "fascist radical right".[36][37]

    Walter Laqueur says that historical fascism "did not belong to the extreme Left, yet defining it as part of the extreme Right is not very illuminating either", but that it "was always a coalition between radical, populist ('fascist') elements and others gravitating toward the extreme Right".[38] Payne says "fascists were unique in their hostility to all the main established currents, left right and center", noting that they allied with both left and right, but more often the right.[39][40] However, he contends that German Nazism was closer to Russian communism than to any other non-communist system. [41]

    The position that fascism is neither right nor left is regarded as credible by a number of contemporary historians, including Seymour Martin Lipset[42] and Roger Griffin.[43] Griffin argued, "Not only does the location of fascism within the right pose taxonomic problems, there are good ground for cutting this particular Gordian knot altogether by placing it in a category of its own "beyond left and right."[44]

    On economic issues, fascists reject ideas of class conflict and internationalism, which are commonly held by Marxists and international socialists, in favour of class collaboration and statist nationalism.[45][46] However, Italian fascism also declared its objection to excessive capitalism, which it called supercapitalism.[47] Zeev Sternhell sees fascism as an anti-Marxist form of socialism.[48]

    A number of fascist movements described themselves as a "third force" that was outside the traditional political spectrum altogether.[49] Mussolini promoted ambiguity about fascism's positions in order to rally as many people to it as possible, saying fascists can be "aristocrats or democrats, revolutionaries and reactionaries, proletarians and anti-proletarians, pacifists and anti-pacifists".[50] Mussolini claimed that Italian Fascism's economic system of corporatism could be identified as either state capitalism or state socialism, which in either case involved "the bureaucratisation of the economic activities of the nation."[51] Mussolini described fascism in any language he found useful.[50][52] Spanish Falangist leader José Antonio Primo de Rivera was critical of both left-wing and right-wing politics, once saying that "basically the Right stands for the maintenance of an economic structure, albeit an unjust one, while the Left stands for the attempt to subvert that economic structure, even though the subversion thereof would entail the destruction of much that was worthwhile".[53]

    Roger Eatwell sees terminology associated with the traditional “left-right” political spectrum as failing to fully capture the complex nature of the ideology[54] and many other political scientists have posited multi-dimensional alternatives to the traditional linear left-right spectrum. [55] In some two dimensional political models, such as the Political Compass (where left and right are described in purely economic terms), fascism is ascribed to the economic centre, with its extremism expressing itself on the authoritarianism axis instead.[56]


    Fascist as epithet
    Main article: Fascist (epithet)
    Following World War II, the word fascist has become a slur throughout the political spectrum. In contemporary political discourse, some adherents of political ideologies on both the left and right wings of the political spectrum associate fascism with their political enemies, or define it as the opposite of their own views. Some argue that the term fascist has become hopelessly vague over the years and that it is now little more than a pejorative epithet. George Orwell wrote in 1944:

    The word ‘Fascism’ is almost entirely meaningless. In conversation, of course, it is used even more wildly than in print. I have heard it applied to farmers, shopkeepers, Social Credit, corporal punishment, fox-hunting, bull-fighting, the 1922 Committee, the 1941 Committee, Kipling, Gandhi, Chiang Kai-Shek, homosexuality, Priestley's broadcasts, Youth Hostels, astrology, women, dogs and I do not know what else... almost any English person would accept ‘bully’ as a synonym for ‘Fascist’. – George Orwell, What is Fascism?. 1944.[57]

    Richard Griffiths argued in 2005 that the term fascism is the "most misused, and over-used word of our times".[22]


    Historical causes of the rise of fascism
    A variety of views exist on what led to the rise of fascism as an ideology. Common views include that fascism was a response to events during World War I that led to perceived failings of democracy, liberalism, and Marxism for each having favoured either individualism or internationalism at the expense of nations and nationalism.[58][59] In Italy, the perceptions of failures of democratic government within the country, Italian liberalism, and the fears of Italian society having been torn apart by Marxism stimulated the creation and popularity of Italian Fascism.[58]

    Fascism presented itself as a radical nationalist alternative to rising Bolshevism that came in the Russian October Revolution of 1917 but it did incorporate government infrastructure aspects of Bolshevism into the ideology, such as the single-party state, the concept of rule by an elite group to represent the masses, and appeals to proletarian workers.[60] With economic problems and unemployment facing recently returned veterans of World War I, fascism appealed to collectivism and honouring soldiers and the military by calling for the end of bourgeois individualism while calling for war on Marxism for its anti-nationalist and perceived anti-patriotic ways.[58]

    The creation of the League of Nations after World War I aggravated nationalists in the world, as the League was seen as the imposition of an internationalist political order upon nations.[61] Fascists saw the League of Nations as only benefiting the wealthy, capitalist democracies.[61] Disillusionment with liberalism deepened with the Stock Market Crash of 1929 and the Great Depression and also created nationalist sentiment in opposition to internationalism.[62]


    Core tenets

    Nationalism
    Fascists see the struggle of nation and race as fundamental in society, in opposition to communism's perception of class struggle[63] and in opposition to capitalism's focus on the value of productivity and individualism.[citation needed] The nation is seen in fascism as a single organic entity which binds people together by their ancestry and is seen as a natural unifying force of people.[64][citation needed]

    Fascism seeks to solve existing economic, political, and social problems by achieving a millenarian national rebirth, exalting the nation or race above all else, and promoting cults of unity, strength and purity.[24][44][65] [66][67] Benito Mussolini stated in 1922, "For us the nation is not just territory but something spiritual... A nation is great when it translates into reality the force of its spirit."[68]

    Eoin O'Duffy, an Irish national corporatist, stated in 1934,

    We must lead the people always; nationally, socially and economically. We must clear up the economic mess and right the glaring social injustices of to-day by the corporative organization of Irish life; but before everything we must give a national lead to our people...The first essential is national unity. We can only have that when the Corporative system is accepted. We shall put our National programme to the people, and it is a programme in which even the most advanced Nationalist can find nothing to disturb him.[69]

    Joseph Goebbels described the Nazis as being affiliated with authoritarian nationalism:

    It enables us to see at once why democracy and Bolshevism, which in the eyes of the world are irrevocably opposed to one another, meet again and again on common ground in their joint hatred of and attacks on authoritarian nationalist concepts of State and State systems. For the authoritarian nationalist conception of the State represents something essentially new. In it the French Revolution is superseded.[70]

    Plínio Salgado, leader of the Brazilian Integralist Action party emphasized the role of the nation:

    The best governments in the world cannot succeed in pulling a country out of the quagmire, out of apathy, if they do not express themselves as national energies...Strong governments cannot result either from conspiracies or from military coups, just as they cannot come out of the machinations of parties or the Machiavellian game of political lobbying. They can only be born from the actual roots of the Nation.[71]


    Foreign policy
    Italian fascists described expansionist imperialism as a necessity. The 1932 Italian Encyclopedia stated: "For Fascism, the growth of empire, that is to say the expansion of the nation, is an essential manifestation of vitality, and its opposite a sign of decadence."[72]

    Similarly the Nazis promoted territorial expansionism to in their words provide "living space" to the German nation.[73] Fascists oppose pacifism and believe that a nation must have a warrior mentality.[74] Benito Mussolini spoke of war idealistically as a source of masculine pride, and spoke of pacifism in negative terms:

    War alone brings up to their highest tension all human energies and puts the stamp of nobility upon the peoples who have the courage to meet it. Fascism carries this anti-pacifist struggle into the lives of individuals. It is education for combat...war is to man what maternity is to the woman. I do not believe in perpetual peace; not only do I not believe in it but I find it depressing and a negation of all the fundamental virtues of a man.[75]

    Joseph Goebbels of the Nazi Party compared World War II to childbirth, and described war as a positive transformative experience:

    Every birth brings pain. But amid the pain there is already the joy of a new life. It is a sign of sterility to shy away from new life on the account of pain[...] Our age too is an act of historical birth, whose pangs carry with them the joy of richer life to come. The significance of the war has grown as its scale has increased. It is relentlessly at work, shattering old forms and ideas, and directing the eyes of human beings to new, greater objectives.[76]


    Authoritarianism
    All fascist movements advocate the creation of an authoritarian government that is an autocratic single-party state led by a charismatic leader with the powers of a dictator.[citation needed] Many fascist movements support the creation of a totalitarian state. The Italian Doctrine of Fascism states: "The Fascist conception of the State is all-embracing; outside of it no human or spiritual values can exist, much less have value. Thus understood, Fascism is totalitarian, and the Fascist State—a synthesis and a unit inclusive of all values—interprets, develops, and potentiates the whole life of a people."[77] Political theorist Carl Schmitt, as a Nazi party member, published The Legal Basis of the Total State in 1935, describing the Nazi regime's intention to form a totalitarian state:

    The recognition of the plurality of autonomous life would, however, immediately lead back to a disastrous pluralism tearing the German people apart into discrete classes and religious, ethnic, social, and interest groups if it were not for a strong state which guarantees a totality of political unity transcending all diversity. Every political unity needs a coherent inner logic underlying its institutions and norms. It needs a unified concept which gives shape to every sphere of public life. In this sense there is no normal State which is not a total State.[78]

    Japanese fascist Nakano Seigo described the need for Japan to follow the Italian Fascist and Nazi regimes as a model for Japanese government and declared that a totalitarian society was more democratic than democracies, saying:

    Both Fascism and Nazism are clearly different from the despotism of the old period. They do not represent the conservatism which lags behind democracy, but are a form of more democratic government going beyond democracy. Democracy has lost its spirit and decayed into a mechanism which insists only on numerical superiority without considering the essence of human beings. It says the majority is all good. I do not agree, because it is the majority which is the precise cause of contemporary decadence. Totalitarianism must be based on essentials, superseding the rule of numbers.[79]

    Some have argued that in spite of Italian fascism's attempt to form a totalitarian state, fascism in Italy devolved to a cult of personality around Mussolini.[80] However, both proponents and opponents of fascism in Italy claimed that it had a clear intention to establish a totalitarian state.[81] Hungarian fascist leader Gyula Gömbös and his Hungarian National Defence Association attempted to form a totalitarian state in Hungary, but that attempt failed after Gömbös' death in 1936.[82] The Nazi regime in Germany has been described as totalitarian by most scholars and critics.[83][84]

    A key element of fascism is its endorsement of a prime national leader, who is often known simply as the "Leader" or a similar title, such as: Duce in Italian, Führer in German, Caudillo in Spanish, Poglavnik in Croatia, or Conducător in Romanian. The fascist movement demands obedience to the leader, and may exhort people worship the leader as an infallible saviour of the people.[citation needed] Fascist leaders who ruled countries were not always heads of state, but heads of government, such as Benito Mussolini, who held power under the King of Italy, Victor Emmanuel III.


    Social Darwinism
    Fascist movements have commonly held social darwinist views of nations, races, and societies.[74] Italian Fascist Alfredo Rocco shortly after World War I claimed that conflict was inevitable in society:

    Conflict is in fact the basic law of life in all social organisms, as it is of all biological ones; societies are formed, gain strength, and move forwards through conflict; the healthiest and most vital of them assert themselves against the weakest and less well adapted through conflict; the natural evolution of nations and races takes place through conflict. Alfredo Rocco[85]

    Italian Fascist philosopher Giovanni Gentile in The Origins and Doctrine of Fascism promoted the concept of conflict being an act of progress by stating that "mankind only progresses through division, and progress is achieved through the clash and victory of one side over another".[85]

    Fascist movements commonly follow the social Darwinist view that in order for nations and races to survive in a world defined by perpetual national and racial conflict, nations and races must purge themselves of socially and biologically weak or degenerate people while simultaneously promoting the creation of strong people.[86]

    In Germany, the Nazis utilized social Darwinism to promote their racialist concept of the German nation as being part of the Aryan race and the need for the Aryan race to be strong in order to be victorious in what the Nazis believed was ongoing competition and conflict between different races.[87]

    The Nazis attempted to strengthen the Aryan race in Germany by murdering those they regarded as weaker. To this end, the T4 project was introduced in the late 1930s and organized the murders of around roughly 275,000 handicapped and elderly German civilians using carbon monoxide gas. [88]

    More recently, Enzo Traverso, Dan Jakopovich and others have argued that far right and fascist ideologies prosper in a climate of "neoliberal social Darwinism".[89]


    Social interventionism
    Generally fascist movements endorse social interventionism dedicated to influencing society to promote the state's interests.[citation needed] Some scholars say that one cannot speak of “fascist social policy” as a single concept with logical and internally consistent ideas and common identifiable goals.[90]

    Different fascist movements have spoken of creating a "new man" and a "new civilization" as part of their intention to transform society.[91] Mussolini promised a “social revolution” for “remaking” the Italian people.[92] Hitler promised to purge Germany of non-Aryan influences on society and create a pure Aryan race through eugenics.


    Indoctrination
    Fascist states have pursued policies of indoctrination of society to their fascist movements such as through propaganda deliberately spread through education and media through regulation of the production of education and media material.[93][94] Education was designed to glorify the fascist movement, inform students of it being of major historical and political importance to the nation, attempted to purge education of ideas that were not consistent with the beliefs of the fascist movement, and taught students to be obedient to the fascist movement.[95]

    Thus fascism tends to be anti-intellectual.[96] The Nazis in particular despised intellectuals and university professors. Hitler declared them unreliable, useless and even dangerous.[97] Hitler said of them: "When I take a look at the intellectual classes we have - unfortunately, I suppose, they are necessary; otherwise one could one day, I don't know, exterminate them or something - but unfortunately they're necessary."[98]


    Abortion, eugenics and euthanasia
    The Fascist government in Italy banned literature on birth control and increased penalties on abortion in 1926, declaring them both crimes against the state.[99] The Nazis decriminalized abortion in cases where fetuses had hereditary defects or were of a race the government disapproved of, while the abortion of healthy "pure" German, "Aryan" unborn remained strictly forbidden.[100] For non-Aryans, abortion was not only allowed, but often compelled.[101] Their eugenics program stemmed also from the "progressive biomedical model" of Weimar Germany.[102]

    In 1935 Nazi Germany expanded the legality of abortion by amending its eugenics law, to promote abortion for women who have hereditary disorders.[103] The law allowed abortion if a woman gave her permission, and if the fetus was not yet viable,[104][105] and for purposes of so-called racial hygiene.[106][107] The security chief of the neo-Nazi group Aryan Nations expressed similar views, stating: "I’m just against abortion for the pure white race. For blacks and other mongrelized races, abortion is a good idea."[108]


    Culture and gender roles
    Fascism tends to promote principles of masculine heroism, militarism, and discipline; and rejects cultural pluralism and multiculturalism.[109]

    Initially Italian Fascism officially stood in favour of expanding voting rights to women. In 1920 Mussolini declared that "Fascists do not belong to the crowd of the vain and skeptical who undervalue women's social and political importance. Who cares about voting? You will vote!".[110] Women were briefly given the right to vote until 1925 when the Italian Fascist government abolished elections.[110]

    Benito Mussolini perceived women's primary role as childbearers while men should be warriors, once saying "war is to man what maternity is to the woman".[111] The Italian Fascist government during the "Battle for Births" gave financial incentives to women who raised large families as well as policies designed to reduce the number of women employed to allow women to give birth to larger numbers of children.[112]

    In 1934, Benito Mussolini declared that employment of women was a "major aspect of the thorny problem of unemployment" which Italy was facing at the time and said that women having a habit of working was "incompatible with childbearing".[113] Mussolini went on to say that the solution to unemployment for men was the "exodus of women from the work force".[114] Italian Fascism called for women to be honoured as "reproducers of the nation" and the Italian Fascist government held ritual ceremonies to honour women's role within the Italian nation.[115]

    In the 1920s, the Italian Fascist government's Opera Nazionale Dopolavoro (OND) allowed working women to attend various entertainment and recreation events including sports that in the past had traditionally been played by men.[116] The Italian Fascist regime was criticized by the Roman Catholic Church that claimed that these activities were causing "masculinization" of women.[117] The Italian Fascist regime responded to such criticism by restricting women to only being allowed to take part "feminine" and "womanly" sports, while forbidding them to be part of sports that were played mostly by men.[117]

    The British Union of Fascists believed that it was unnatural for women to have more influence in a relationship with a man.[118] After Oswald Mosley was arrested in 1940, during interrogation he declared that the British Fascists were committed to equality of the sexes and commended women's role in the British Fascist movement, claiming that the movement had "been largely built up by the fanaticism of women...Without the women I could not have got a quarter of the way...".[119] It is believed that women accounted for 20 per cent to one-third of the British Union of Fascists' membership.[119]

    Nazi policies toward women strongly encouraged them to stay at home to bear children and keep house.[120] This policy was reinforced by bestowing the Cross of Honor of the German Mother on women bearing four or more babies. The unemployment rate was cut substantially, mostly through arms production and sending women home so that men could take their jobs. Nazi propaganda sometimes promoted premarital and extramarital sexual relations, unwed motherhood, and divorce. At other times the Nazis opposed such behaviour.[121] The growth of Nazi power, however, was accompanied by a breakdown of traditional sexual morals with regard to extramarital sex and licentiousness.[122]

    Fascist movements and governments oppose homosexuality. The Italian Fascist government declared it illegal in Italy in 1931.[123] The British Union of Fascists opposed homosexuality and pejoratively questioned their opponents' sexual orientation, especially of male anti-fascists.[124] The Romanian Iron Guard opposed homosexuality as undermining society.[125]

    The Nazis thought homosexuality was degenerate, effeminate, perverted and undermined the masculinity which they promoted, because it did not produce children.[126] Nevertheless the Nazis considered homosexuality curable through therapy. They explained it though modern scientism and the study of sexology which said that homosexuality could be felt by "normal" people and not just an abnormal minority.[127] Critics have claimed that the Nazis' claim of scientific reasons for their promotion of racism, and hostility to homosexuals is pseudoscience,[128][129] in that scientific findings were selectively picked that promoted their pre-existing views, while scientific findings opposing those views were rejected and not taken into account.


    Economic policies
    The neutrality of this article is disputed. Please see the discussion on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until the dispute is resolved. (April 2009)

    Further information: Economics of fascism
    Fascists explicitly promoted their ideology as a "Third Position" between capitalism and communism.[130] Italian Fascism involved corporatism, a political system in which economy is collectively managed by employers, workers and state officials by formal mechanisms at national level.[131] Fascists advocated a new national multi-class economic system that is labeled as either national corporatism, national socialism or national syndicalism.[21] The common aim of all fascist movements was elimination of the autonomy or, in some cases, the existence of large-scale capitalism.[132]

    Fascist governments exercised influence over the economy differently than that of communist-led states, in that individual private property was controlled but not nationalized.[133] Nevertheless, like the Soviet Union, fascist states pursued economic policies to strengthen state power and spread ideology, such as consolidating trade unions to be state or party-controlled.[134] Attempts were made by both Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany to establish "autarky" (self-sufficiency) through significant economic planning, but both failed to make the two countries self-sufficient.[135]


    National corporatism, national socialism and national syndicalism
    While fascists support the unifying of proletariat workers to their cause along corporatistic, socialistic, or syndicalistic lines, fascists specify that they advocate a nationalized form of such economic systems such as corporatism, national socialism, or national syndicalism which promotes the creation of a strong proletarian nation, but not a proletarian class.[136] Fascists also make clear that they have no hostility to the petite bourgeoisie (lower middle-class) or to small businesses and promise these groups protection alongside the proletariat from the upper-class bourgeoisie, big business, and Marxism. The promotion of these groups is the source of the term 'extremism of the centre' to describe fascism.[137]

    Fascism blames capitalist liberal democracies for creating class conflict and in turn blames communists for exploiting class conflict.[9] In Italy, the Fascist period presided over the creation of the largest number of state-owned enterprises in Western Europe such as the nationalization of petroleum companies in Italy into a single state enterprise called the Italian General Agency for Petroleum (Azienda Generale Italiani Petroli, AGIP).[138] Fascists made populist appeals to the middle class (especially the lower middle class) by promising to protect small business and small property owners from communism, and by promising an economy based on competition and profit while pledging to oppose big business.[137]

    On economic issues, Benito Mussolini in 1933 declared Italian Fascism's opposition to "decadent capitalism" that he claimed prevailed in the world at the time, but did not denounce capitalism entirely. Mussolini claimed that capitalism had degenerated in three stages, starting with dynamic or heroic capitalism (1830–1870) followed by static capitalism (1870–1914) and then reaching its final form of decadent capitalism, also known as supercapitalism beginning in 1914.[47] Mussolini argued that Italian Fascism was in favour of dynamic and heroic capitalism for its contribution to industrialism and technical developments but claimed that it did not favour supercapitalism, which he claimed was incompatible with Italy's agricultural sector.[47]

    Thus Mussolini claimed that Italy under Fascist rule was not capitalist in the modern use of the term which referred to supercapitalism.[47] Mussolini denounced supercapitalism for causing the "standardization of humankind" and for causing excessive consumption.[139] Mussolini claimed that at this stage of supercapitalism "[it] is then that a capitalist enterprise, when difficulties arise, throws itself like a dead weight into the state's arms. It is then that state intervention begins and becomes more necessary. It is then that those who once ignored the state now seek it out anxiously."[140] Mussolini went on to claim that Fascism was the next logical step to solve the problems of supercapitalism and claimed that this step could be seen either as a form of capitalism or socialism which involved state intervention, saying "our path would lead inexorably into state capitalism, which is nothing more nor less than state socialism turned on its head. In either event, [whether the outcome be state capitalism or state socialism] the result is the bureaucratization of the economic activities of the nation."[141]

    Some fascists were indifferent or hostile to corporatism. The Nazis initially attempted to form a corporatist economic system like that in Fascist Italy, and created the National Socialist Institute for Corporatism in May 1933, which included many major economists who argued that corporatism was consistent with National Socialism.[142][143]. In Mein Kampf, Hitler spoke enthusiastically about the "National Socialist corporative idea" as one which would eventually "take the place of ruinous class warfare"[144] However, the Nazis later believed that corporatism was not beneficial to Germany because they deemed that it institutionalized and legitimized social differences within the German nation and instead the Nazis went on to promote economic organizations that emphasized the biological unity of the German national community.[145]

    Hitler had temporarily been interested in corporatism, but later just used it as a propaganda device, as corporatism was not put into place, even though a number of Nazi officials such as Walther Darré, Gottfried Feder, Alfred Rosenburg, and Gregor Strasser were in favour of a neo-medievalist form of corporatism, as corporations had been influential in German people's history in the medieval era.[146] Spanish Falangist leader José Antonio Primo de Rivera did not believe that corporatism was effective and denounced it as a propaganda ploy, saying "This stuff about the corporative state is another piece of windbaggery".[147]


    Economic planning
    Fascists opposed laissez-faire economic policies dominant in the era prior to the Great Depression.[148] After the Great Depression began, many people from across the political spectrum blamed laissez-faire capitalism for the Great Depression, and fascists promoted their ideology as a "third way" between capitalism and communism.[149]

    Fascists declared their opposition to finance capitalism, interest charging, and profiteering.[150] Nazis and other anti-Semitic fascists, considered finance capitalism a "parasitic" "Jewish conspiracy".[151] Fascist governments nationalized some key industries, managed their currencies and made some massive state investments.[citation needed] Fascist governments introduced price controls, wage controls and other types of economic interventionist measures.[152]

    Other than nationalization of certain industries, private property was allowed, but property rights and private initiative were contingent upon service to the state.[153] For example, "an owner of agricultural land may be compelled to raise wheat instead of sheep and employ more labour than he would find profitable."[154] According to historian Tibor Ivan Berend, dirigisme was an inherent aspect of fascist economies.[155] The Labour Charter of 1927, promulgated by the Grand Council of Fascism, stated in article 7: "The corporative State considers private initiative, in the field of production, as the most efficient and useful instrument of the Nation", then goes on to say in article 9: "State intervention in economic production may take place only where private initiative is lacking or is insufficient, or when are at stakes the political interest of the State. This intervention may take the form of control, encouragement or direct management."[156]

    Fascists thought that private property should be regulated to ensure that "benefit to the community precedes benefit to the individual."[157] They also introduced price controls and other types of economic planning measures.[152]

    Fascism had Social Darwinist views of human relations and promoted "superior" individuals and saw people who were weak as being inferior.[158] In terms of economic practice, this meant promoting the interests of successful businesses while banning trade unions and other workers' organizations.[159] Benito Mussolini in his English autobiography in one section focused on the economy of the United States where he stated that he agreed with the capitalist notion held by Americans that profit should not be taken away from those who produced it from their own labour for any purpose, saying "I do not respect—I even hate—those men that leech a tenth of the riches produced by others".[160]


    Social welfare
    Benito Mussolini promised a "social revolution" that would "remake" the Italian people, which was only achieved in part.[161] The people who primarily benefited from Italian fascist social policies were members of the middle and lower-middle classes, who filled jobs in the vastly expanding government workforce, which grew from about 500,000 to a million jobs in 1930.[161] Health and welfare spending grew dramatically under Italian fascism, with welfare rising from seven percent of the budget in 1930 to 20% in 1940.[162]

    A major success in social welfare policy in Fascist Italy was the creation of the Opera Nazionale Dopolavoro (OND) or "National After-work Program" in 1925. The OND was the state's largest recreational organizations for adults.[163] The Dopolavoro was responsible for establishing and maintaining 11,000 sports grounds, over 6,400 libraries, 800 movie houses, 1,200 theatres, and over 2,000 orchestras.[163] Membership in the Dopolavoro was voluntary but had high participation because of its nonpolitical nature.[163] It is estimated that by 1936 the OND had organized 80 percent of salaried workers.[164] Nearly 40 percent of the industrial workforce had been recruited into the Dopolavoro by 1939 and the sports activities proved popular with large numbers of workers. The OND had the largest membership of any of the mass Fascist organizations in Italy.[165]

    The enormous success of the Dopolavoro in Fascist Italy was the key factor in Nazi Germany creating its own version of the Dopolavoro, the Kraft durch Freude (KdF) or "Strength through Joy" program of the Nazi government's German Labour Front, which was even more successful than the Dopolavoro.[166] KdF provided government-subsidized holidays for German workers.[167] KdF was also responsible for the creation of the original Volkswagen ("People's Car") that was a state-made automobile that was meant to be cheap enough to allow all German citizens to be able to own one.

    While fascists promote social welfare for ameliorating negative economic conditions that are affecting their nation or race as whole, they do not support social welfare for egalitarian reasons. Fascists abhor egalitarianism for preserving the weak; they promote social Darwinist views and claim that nations and races must preserve and promote their strengths to ensure survival in a world that is in a perpetual state of national and/or racial conflict and competition.[168][169][170][171]

    Adolf Hitler was opposed to egalitarian and universal social welfare because, in his view, it encouraged the preservation of the degenerate and feeble.[172] While in power, the Nazis created social welfare programs to deal with the large numbers of unemployed. However, those programs were neither egalitarian nor universal, but instead residual, as they excluded multiple minority groups and certain other people whom they felt were incapable of helping themselves, and who would pose a threat to the future health of the German people.[173]


    Racism and racialism
    Fascists are not unified on the issues of racism and racialism. Mussolini, in a 1919 speech to denounce Soviet Russia, claimed that Jewish bankers in London and New York City were bound by the chains of race to Moscow, and claimed that 80 percent of the Soviet leaders were Jews.[174] In his 1920 autobiography, he said: "Race and soil are strong influences upon us all", and said of World War I: "There were seers who saw in the European conflict not only national advantages but the possibility of a supremacy of race".[175] In a 1921 speech in Bologna, Mussolini stated that "Fascism was born... out of a profound, perennial need of this our Aryan and Mediterranean race".[174] He said in 1928:

    [When the] city dies, the nation — deprived of the young life — blood of new generations — is now made up of people who are old and degenerate and cannot defend itself against a younger people which launches an attack on the now unguarded frontiers[...] This will happen, and not just to cities and nations, but on an infinitely greater scale: the whole White race, the Western race can be submerged by other coloured races which are multiplying at a rate unknown in our race.[176]

    Many Italian fascists held anti-Slavist views, especially against neighbouring Yugoslav nations, whom the Italian fascists saw as being in competition with Italy, which had claims on territories of Yugoslavia, particularly Dalmatia.[177] Mussolini claimed that Yugoslavs posed a threat after Italy did not receive the territory along the Adriatic coast at the end of World War I, as promised by the 1915 Treaty of London. He said: "The danger of seeing the Jugo-Slavians settle along the whole Adriatic shore had caused a bringing together in Rome of the cream of our unhappy regions. Students, professors, workmen, citizens—representative men—were entreating the ministers and the professional politicians.[178] Italian fascists accused Serbs of having "atavistic impulses", and of being part of a "social democratic, masonic Jewish internationalist plot".[179] The fascists accused Yugoslavs of conspiring together on behalf of "Grand Orient masonry and its funds".

    In 1933, Mussolini contradicted his earlier statements on race, saying: "Race! It is a feeling, not a reality: ninety-five percent, at least, is a feeling. Nothing will ever make me believe that biologically pure races can be shown to exist today. ... National pride has no need of the delirium of race."[180]


    Relation to religion
    The attitude of fascism toward religion has run the gamut from persecution, to denunciation, to cooperation,[181] to embrace.[182] Stanley Payne notes that fundamental to fascism was the foundation of a purely materialistic "civic religion" that would "displace preceding structures of belief and relegate supernatural religion to a secondary role, or to none at all", and that "though there were specific examples of religious or would-be 'Christian fascists,' fascism presupposed a post-Christian, post-religious, secular, and immanent frame of reference."[183]

    According to Payne, such "would be" religious fascists only gain hold where traditional belief is weakened or absent, as fascism seeks to create new non-rationalist myth structures for those who no longer hold a traditional view.[184] The rise of modern secularism in Europe and Latin America, and the incursion and large-scale adoption of western secular culture in the mid-east leave a void where this modern secular ideology, sometimes under a religious veneer, can take hold.[184]

    Many fascists were anti-clerical in both private and public life.[185] Although both Hitler and Mussolini were anti-clerical, they both understood that it would be rash to begin their Kulturkampfs prematurely, such a clash, possibly inevitable in the future, being put off while they dealt with other enemies.[186] Hitler had a general plan, even before the Nazis' rise to power, to destroy Christianity within the Reich.[187][188][189]

    The leader of the Hitler Youth stated "the destruction of Christianity was explicitly recognized as a purpose of the National Socialist movement" from the start, but "considerations of expedience made it impossible" publicly to express this extreme position.[187] In Mexico, the Red Shirts were vehemently atheist, renounced religion, killed priests, and on one occasion gunned down Catholics as they left Mass.[190][191][192][193][194]

    According to a biographer of Mussolini, "Initially, fascism was fiercely anti-Catholic" — the Church being a competitor for dominion of the people's hearts.[195] Mussolini, originally an atheist, published anti-Catholic writings and planned for the confiscation of Church property, but eventually moved to accommodation.[181] Mussolini endorsed the Roman Catholic Church for political legitimacy, as during the Lateran Treaty talks, Fascist Party officials engaged in bitter arguments with Vatican officials and put pressure on them to accept the terms that the regime deemed acceptable.[196] Protestantism in Italy was not as significant as Catholicism, and the Protestant minority was persecuted.[197] Mussolini's sub-secretary of Interior, Bufferini-Guidi issued a memo closing all houses of worship of the Italian Pentecostals and Jehovah's Witnesses, and imprisoned their leaders.[198] In some instances, people were killed because of their faith.[199]

    The Ustaše in Croatia had strong Catholic overtones, with some clerics in positions of power.[200] The fascist movement in Romania, known as the Iron Guard or the Legion of Archangel Michael, preceded its meetings with a church service, and their demonstrations were usually led by priests carrying icons and religious flags.[citation needed] The Romanian fascist movement promoted a cult of "suffering, sacrifice and martyrdom."[201][202]

    In Latin America, the most notable fascist movement was Plinio Salgado's Brazilian Integralism. Built on a network of lay religious associations, its vision was of an integral state that "comes from Christ, is inspired in Christ, acts for Christ, and goes toward Christ."[203][204][205] Salgado criticised the "dangerous pagan tendencies of Hitlerism".[206]

    Hitler and the Nazi regime attempted to found their own version of Christianity called Positive Christianity which made major changes in its interpretation of the Bible which said that Jesus Christ was the son of God, but was not a Jew; they further claimed that Christ despised Jews, and that the Jews were the ones solely responsible for his death.[citation needed] By 1940, however, it was public knowledge that Hitler had abandoned even the syncretist idea of a positive Christianty.[207]

    The Catholic Church was particularly suppressed by Nazis in Poland. In addition to the deaths of some 3 million Polish Jews, 2 million Polish Catholics were killed.[208] Between 1939 and 1945, an estimated 3,000 polish clergy (18 percent) were murdered; of these, 1,992 died in concentration camps.[208] In the annexed territory of Reichsgau Wartheland it was even harsher than elsewhere. Churches were systematically closed, and most priests were either killed, imprisoned, or deported to the General Government.

    The Germans also closed seminaries and convents persecuting monks and nuns throughout Poland. Eighty percent of the Catholic clergy and five of the bishops of Warthegau were sent to concentration camps in 1939; in Chełmno, 48 percent.[208] Of those murdered by the Nazi regime, 108 are regarded as blessed martyrs.[208] Among them, Maximilian Kolbe was canonized as a saint. Not only in Poland were Christians persecuted by the Nazis. In the Dachau concentration camp alone, 2,600 Catholic priests from 24 different countries were killed.[208]

    One theory is that religion and fascism could never have a lasting connection because both are a "holistic weltanschauung" claiming the whole of the person. [181] Along these lines, Yale political scientist, Juan Linz and others have noted that secularization had created a void which could be filled by a total ideology, making totalitarianism possible[209][210], and Roger Griffin has characterized fascism as a type of anti-religious political religion.[211] Such political religions vie with existing religions, and try, if possible, to replace or eradicate them. [210]


    Variations and subforms
    See also: European fascist ideologies
    Movements identified by scholars as fascist hold a variety of views, and what qualifies as fascism is often a hotly contested subject. The original movement which self-identified as Fascist was that of Benito Mussolini and his National Fascist Party. Intellectuals such as Giovanni Gentile produced The Doctrine of Fascism and founded the ideology.

    The majority of strains which emerged after the original fascism, but are sometimes placed under the wider usage of the term, self-identified their parties with different names. Major examples include; Falangism, Integralism, Iron Guard and Nazism as well as various other designations.[212]


    Italian Fascism
    Main article: Italian Fascism
    See also: The Doctrine of Fascism, Actual Idealism, and March on Rome
    Benito MussoliniFascism was born during a period of social and political unrest following World War I. The war had seen Italy begin to feel a sense of nationalism, rather than its historic regionalism.[213] Despite being an Allied Power, Italy was given what nationalists considered an unfair deal at the Treaty of Versailles.[213]

    When the other allies told Italy to hand over the city of Fiume at the Paris Peace Conference, war veteran Gabriele d'Annunzio declared the independent state there, the Italian Regency of Carnaro.[214] He named himself Duce of the nation and declared a constitution, the Charter of Carnaro, which was highly influential to early Fascism, though he himself never became a fascist.[214]

    Flag of the National Fascist Party.Benito Mussolini founded Italian fascism as the Fasci italiani di combattimento after he returned from World War I, and published a Fascist manifesto. The birth of the Fascist movement can be traced to a meeting he held in the Piazza San Sepolcro in Milan on March 23, 1919, which declared the original principles of the Fascists through a series of declarations.[215]

    These included a dedication to Italian war veterans,[216] a declaration of the fascists' loyalty to Italy and its opposition to foreign aggressors, a pronouncment that the fascists would fight against other political factions and a declaration of opposition to bolshevism and socialism, particularly the socialism of the Italian Socialist Party. They also declared their intention to seize power and their opposition to the multiparty representative democracy in Italy.

    The fascists took a moderate stance on the economy, effectively declaring that they favoured class collaboration while opposing excessive state intervention into the economy, and calling for pressure on industrialists and workers to be cooperative and constructive, saying:

    “ As for economic democracy, we favour national syndicalism and reject State intervention whenever it aims at throttling the creation of wealth.[217] ”

    Mussolini and the fascists were simultaneously revolutionary and traditionalist.[218][219] because this was vastly different from anything else in the political climate of the time, it is sometimes described as "The Third Way".[220] The Fascisti, led by one of Mussolini's close confidants, Dino Grandi, formed armed squads of war veterans called Blackshirts (or squadristi) with the goal of restoring order. The blackshirts clashed with communists, socialists and anarchists at parades and demonstrations. The government rarely interfered with the blackshirts' actions, due in part to a widespread fear of a Communist revolution.

    The Fascisti grew so rapidly that within two years, it transformed itself into the National Fascist Party at a congress in Rome. Also in 1921, Mussolini was elected to the Chamber of Deputies for the first time and was later appointed as Prime Minister by the King in 1922. He then went on to install a dictatorship after 10 June 1924 assassination of anti-fascist writer Giacomo Matteotti by agents of the Mussolini's Ceka secret police.

    Mussolini's colonialism reached further into Africa in an attempt to compete with British and French colonial empires.[221] Mussolini spoke of making Italy a nation that was "great, respected and feared" throughout Europe, and indeed the world. An early example was his bombardment of Corfu in 1923. Soon after he succeeded in setting up a puppet regime in Albania and forcibly ended a rebellion in Libya, which had been a colony (loosely) since 1912. It was his dream to make the Mediterranean mare nostrum ("our sea" in Latin).


    Nazism (Germany)
    Main article: Nazism
    Flag of the German Nazi PartyThe National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazi Party) ruled Germany from 1933 until 1945. After Benito Mussolini's successful March on Rome in 1922, German Nazi leader Adolf Hitler grew to admire him, and soon the Nazis presented themselves as a German version of Italian Fascism.[222][223] Joseph Goebbels, Hitler's chief propagandist, credited Italian Fascism with starting a conflict against liberal democracy, saying,

    The march on Rome was a signal, a sign of storm for liberal-democracy. It is the first attempt to destroy the world of the liberal-democratic spirit[...] which started in 1789 with the storm on the Bastille and conquered one country after another in violent revolutionary upheavals, to let... the nations go under in Marxism, democracy, anarchy and class warfare..."[224]

    Following the Italians' example, the Nazis attempted a "March on Berlin" to topple the Weimar Republic, which they characterised as "Marxist" (in reality, it was social democratic).[224] A month after Mussolini had risen to power, amid claims by the Nazis that they were equivalent to the Italian fascists, Hitler's popularity in Germany began to grow, and large crowds began to attend Nazi rallies. The newspaper Berlin Lokal-Anzeiger featured a front page article about Hitler, saying "There are a lot of people who believe him to be the German Mussolini".[222]

    Adolf Hitler, German Nazi leaderIn private, Mussolini expressed dislike of Hitler and the Nazis, seeing them as mere imitators of Italian Fascism. When Mussolini met with the Italian Consul in Munich prior to the Nazis' failed Beer Hall Putsch in 1923, he stated that the Nazis were "buffoons".[225]

    The Nazis gained political power in Germany's government through a democratic election in 1932. Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany in the 1933 election, subsequently putting into place the Enabling Act of 1933, which effectively gave him the power of a dictator. The Nazis announced a national rebirth, in the form of the Third Reich, nicknamed the Thousand Year Empire, promoted as a successor to the Holy Roman Empire and the German Empire.

    Although the modern consensus sees Nazism as a type of generic fascism,[226] some scholars, including Gilbert Allardyce, Zeev Sternhell, Karl Dietrich Bracher and A.F.K. Organski, argue that Nazism is not fascism – either because it is different in character or because they believe fascism cannot be generically defined.[227][228][229] Nazism differed from Italian fascism in that it had a stronger emphasis on race, especially exhibited as antisemitism. Roger Griffin, a leading exponent of the generic fascism theory, wrote:

    "It might well be claimed that Nazism and Italian fascism were separate species within the same genus, without any implicit assumption that the two species ought to be well-nigh identical. Ernst Nolte has stated that the differences could be easily reconciled by employing a term such as 'radical fascism' for Nazism. ... The establishment of fundamental generic characteristics linking Nazism to movements in other parts of Europe allows further consideration on a comparative basis of the reasons why such movements were able to become a real political danger and gain power in Italy and Germany, whereas in other European countries they remained an unpleasant, but transitory irritant..."[230]

    Sternhell views Nazism as separate from fascism:

    Fascism can in no way be identified with Nazism. Undoubtedly the two ideologies, the two movements, and the two regimes had common characteristics. They often ran parallel to one another or overlapped, but they differed on one fundamental point: the criterion of German national socialism was biological determination. The basis of Nazism was a racism in its most extreme sense, and the fight against Jews, against 'inferior' races, played a more preponderant role in it than the struggle against communism.[231]


    Iron Guard (Romania)
    Main article: Iron Guard
    Corneliu Zelea Codreanu Symbol of the Iron Guard .The Iron Guard was an antisemitic fascist movement and political party in Romania from 1927 to 1941.[232] It was briefly in power from September 14, 1940 until January 21, 1941. It was founded by Corneliu Zelea Codreanu on 24 July 1927 as the "Legion of the Archangel Michael" (Legiunea Arhanghelul Mihail), and it was led by him until his death in 1938.

    Adherents to the movement continued to be widely referred to as "legionnaires" (sometimes "legionaries"; Romanian: legionari) and the organization as the "Legion" or the "Legionary Movement" (Mişcarea Legionară), despite various changes of the (intermittently banned) organization's name.

    It was strongly anti-Semitic, promoting the idea that "Rabbinical aggression against the Christian world" in "unexpected 'protean forms': Freemasonry, Freudianism, homosexuality, atheism, Marxism, Bolshevism, the civil war in Spain, and social democracy" were undermining society.[233]

    The Iron Guard "inserted strong elements of Orthodox Christianity into its political doctrine to the point of becoming one of the rare modern European political movements with a religious ideological structure."[234]


    Falangism (Spain)
    Main article: Falangism
    See also: Falangism in Latin America and Kataeb Party
    Falangism was a form of fascism founded by José Antonio Primo de Rivera in 1934, emerging during the Second Spanish Republic.[235] Primo de Rivera was the son of Spain's former dictator Miguel Primo de Rivera. Following the establishment of the Second Spanish Republic Spain went from a kingdom into a republic dominated by left wing poltiicians almost overnight.

    Primo de Rivera, inspired by Mussolini, founded the Falange Española party, which merged a year later with the Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista party of Ramiro Ledesma and Onésimo Redondo.[236] The party and Primo de Rivera presented the Falange Manifesto in November 1934; it promoted nationalism, unity, glorification of the Spanish Empire and dedication to the national syndicalism economic policy, inspired by integralism in which there is class collaboration. The manifesto supported agrarianism, to improve the standard of living for the peasants of the rural areas, anti-capitalism and anti-Marxism. The Falange participated in the Spanish general election, 1936 with low results compared to the far-left Popular Front, but soon after increased in membership rapidly.

    Flag of the FET y de las JONS party.Primo de Rivera was captured by Republicans on 6 July 1936 and held in captivity at Alicante. The Spanish Civil War broke out on 17 July 1936 between the Republicans and the Nationalists, with the Falangistas fighting for Nationalist cause. Despite his incarceration Primo de Rivera was a strong symbol of the cause, referred to as El Ausente, meaning "the Absent One". He was summarily executed on 20 November after a trial by socialists.[237]

    General Francisco Franco, already the leader of the rebel Nationalists, took over the leadership of the Falangists. Franco's focus was on victory in the war, and ensuring important flows of material from Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany, so he was less ideological than his predecessor.[238]

    A merger between the Falange and the Carlists took place in 1937, creating the FET y de las JONS, a more traditionalist, conservative party than the original Falagnists, and one which is described by some "authentic" Falangists as a move away from the party's original fascist principles.[235][235][239] Franco balanced several different interests of elements in his party, in an effort to keep them united, especially in regard to the question of monarchy.[240]

    Franco's traditionalist, conservative stance means the Francosit regime is not generally considered to be fascist, as it lacked any revolutionary, transformative aspect. [241][242][243][244][245] Stanley Payne, the preeminent scholar on fascism and Spain notes: "scarcely any of the serious historians and analysts of Franco consider the generalissimo to be a core fascist."[246]

    The ideas of Falangism were also exported, mainly to parts of the Hispanosphere, especially in South America.[247] In some countries these movements were obscure, in others they had some impact.[247] The Bolivian Socialist Falange under Óscar Únzaga provided significant competition to the ruling government during the 1950s until the 1970s.[248]

    In Peru, Catholic activist Luis Fernando Figari attempted to promote the ideals of Falangism, creating the youth Catholic association Sodalitium Christianae Vitae, in which, during the 70's, future members were educated in the official social doctrine of the Church as well in the Falangismo. Falangism was significant in Lebanon through the Kataeb Party and its founder Pierre Gemayel[249], fighting for national independence which was won in 1943.


    Para-fascism
    Some states and movements have certain characteristics of fascism, but scholars generally agree they are not fascist. Such near-fascist groups are generally anti-liberal, anti-communist and use similar political or paramilitary methods to fascists, but lack fascism's revolutionary goal to create a new national character.[250] Para-fascism is a term used to describe authoritarian regimes with aspects that differentiate them from true fascist states or movements.[251]

    Para-fascists typically eschewed radical change and some viewed genuine fascists as a threat.[252] Para-fascist states were often the home of genuine fascist movements, which were sometimes suppressed or co-opted, sometimes collaborated with.[250]

    Notable parafascist governments and political groups include[citation needed]:

    Estado Novo Portugal.
    Military dictatorship in Greece during the cold war (1960s/70s).
    Peronism by general Juan Peron of Argentina (1943–55).
    Pinochet regime in Chile (1973–89) and its anti-communism.
    Suharto regime in Indonesia (1965–97) also authoritarian.
    Saddam Hussein and the Ba'ath Party regime in Iraq (1963–2003).
    Apartheid-era South Africa by the Afrikaans Nationalist Party.

    Austrian Fatherland Front
    Main article: Austrofascism
    Engelbert Dollfuß Flag of the Fatherland Front of Austria."Austrofascism" is a controversial category encompassing various para-fascist and semi-fascist movements in Austria in the 1930s.[253] In particular it refers to the Fatherland Front, which became Austria's sole legal political party in 1934. It had an ideology of the "community of the people" (Volksgemeinschaft) that was different from that of the Nazis.

    They were similar in that both served to attack the idea of a class struggle, accusing the left of destroying individuality. The leader of the Fatherland Front, Engelbert Dollfuß, claimed he wanted to "out-Hitler" (überhitlern) Nazism.

    Unlike the ethnic nationalism promoted by Italian Fascists and Nazis, the Fatherland Front focused entirely on cultural nationalism such as Austrian identity and distinction from Germany, extolling Austria's ties to the Roman Catholic Church. The notion of the Fatherland Front being fascist is usually based on the regime's support for and ideological similarities with of Fascist Italy, but its intensely conservative nationalism is often distinguished from revolutionary fascism.


    Imperial Rule Assistance Association (Japan)
    Symbol of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association. Fumimaro Konoe founded the Imperial Rule Assistance Association in 1940.The Imperial Rule Assistance Association (Taisei Yokusankai) was a coalition of fascist and nationalist political movements of Japan such as the Imperial Way Faction (Kōdōha) and the Society of the East (Tōhōkai). It was formed under the guidance of Japanese Prime Minister Fumimaro Konoe who was seeking to unify competing Japanese fascist and nationalist groups to reduce political friction and strengthen relations with the fascist regimes in Germany and Italy.[254][255] Prior to creation of the IRAA, Konoe had already effectively nationalized strategic industries, the news media, and labour unions, in preparation for total war with China.

    Konoe's successor, Hideki Tōjō entrenched the IRAA as the country's ruling political movement, and attempted to establish himself as the absolute leader, or Shogun, of Japan. In contrast to European fascism, though, the cult of personality for the movement focused not on the head of government, but on the Emperor of Japan.[254][255]

    The IRAA created Tonarigumi (Neighbourhood Association) and youth organisations, in which participation was mandatory. After the 1942 general election, all members of the Japanese parliament were forced to become members of the IRAA, making Japan a single-party state.

    The IRAA government promoted Japanese expansionism and imperialism, declaring that Japan would form and lead a "Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere".[256]


    References

    Notes
    ^ Girvin, Brian. The Right in the Twentieth Century. Pinter, 1994. Pp. 83. Describes fascism as an "anti-liberal radical authoritarian nationalist movement".
    ^ Turner, Henry Ashby. Reappraisals of Fascism. New Viewpoints, 1975. Pp. 162. States fascism's "goals of radical and authoritarian nationalism".
    ^ Payne, Stanley. Fascism in Spain, 1923-1977. Univ of Wisconsin Press, 1992. Pp. 43. Payne describes Spanish fascist José Antonio Primo de Rivera's objectives, saying "Young José Antonio's primary political passion was and would long remain the vindication of his father's work, which he was now trying to conceptualize in a radical, authoritarian nationalist form."
    ^ Larsen, Stein Ugelvik; Hagtvet, Bernt; Myklebust, Jan Petter. Who were the Fascists: social roots of European Fascism. Pp. 424. This reference calls fascism an "organized form of integrative radical nationalist authoritarianism".
    ^ E.g. Noel O'Sullivan's five major themes of fascism are: corporatism, revolution, the leader principle, messianic faith, and autarky. The Fascism Reader by Aristotle A. Kallis says, "1. Corporatism. The most important claim made by fascism was that it alone could offer the creative prospect of a 'third way' between capitalism and socialism. Hitler, in Mein Kampf, spoke enthusiastically about the 'National Socialist corporative idea' as one which would eventually 'take the place of ruinous class warfare'; whilst Mussolini, in typically extravagant fashion, declared that 'the Corporative System is destined to become the civilization of the twentieth century.'"
    ^ Hawkins, Mike. Social Darwinism in European and American Thought, 1860-1945: Nature as Model and Nature as Threat. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. p. 285. "Conflict is in fact the basic law of life in all social organisms, as it is of all biological ones; societies are formed, gain strength, and move forwards through conflict; the healthiest and most vital of them assert themselves against the weakest and less well adapted through conflict; the natural evolution of nations and races takes place through conflict." Alfredo Rocco, Italian Fascist theorist and government minister.
    ^ De Grand, Alexander. Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany: the "fascist" style of rule. Routledge, 2004. Pp. 28.
    ^ Kent, Allen; Lancour, Harold; Nasri, William Z. Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science: Volume 62 - Supplement 25 - Automated Discourse Generation to the User-Centered Revolution: 1970-1995. CRC Press, 1998. ISBN 0824720628, 9780824720629. p. 69.
    ^ a b Welch, David. Modern European History, 1871-2000. p. 57. [1] (Speaks of fascism opposing capitalism for creating class conflict and communism for exploiting class conflict).
    ^ Peter Davies, Derek Lynch. The Routledge Companion to Fascism and the Far Right. Routledge, 2002. p. 146
    ^ Heywood, Andrew. Key Concepts in Politics. Palgrave Macmillan, 2000. p. 78
    ^ Rao, B. V. History of Modern Europe Ad 1789-2002. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd, 2006. p. 215
    ^ E.g. Noel O'Sullivan's five major themes of fascism are: corporatism, revolution, the leader principle, messianic faith, and autarky. The Fascism Reader by Aristotle A. Kallis says, "1. Corporatism. The most important claim made by fascism was that it alone could offer the creative prospect of a 'third way' between capitalism and socialism. Hitler, in Mein Kampf, spoke enthusiastically about the 'National Socialist corporative idea' as one which would eventually 'take the place of ruinous class warfare'; whilst Mussolini, in typically extravagant fashion, declared that 'the Corporative System is destined to become the civilization of the twentieth century.'"
    ^ Corporatism and fascism and ots
    ^ Gregor, Mussolini's Intellectuals: Fascist Social and Political Thought, Princeton University Press, 2005 ISBN 0691120099 282 pages, page 4
    ^ New World, Websters (2005). Webster's II New College Dictionary. Houghton Mifflin Reference Books. ISBN 0618396012.
    ^ a b Payne, Stanley (1995). A History of Fascism, 1914-45. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0299148742.
    ^ Doordan, Dennis P (1995). In the Shadow of the Fasces: Political Design in Fascist Italy. The MIT Press. ISBN 0299148742.
    ^ Parkins, Wendy (2002). Fashioning the Body Politic: Dress, Gender, Citizenship. Berg Publishers. ISBN 1859735878.
    ^ Gregor, A. James (2002). Phoenix: Fascism in Our Time. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 0765808552.
    ^ a b Payne, Stanley G (1983). Fascism, Comparison and Definition. Univ of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0299080641.
    ^ a b Griffiths, Richard. An Intelligent Person's Guide to Fascism. Duckworth.
    ^ Roger Griffin, The palingenetic core of generic fascist ideology, Chapter published in Alessandro Campi (ed.), Che cos'è il fascismo? Interpretazioni e prospettive di ricerche, Ideazione editrice, Roma, 2003, pp. 97–122.
    ^ a b Paxton, Robert. The Anatomy of Fascism. Vintage Books.
    ^ Eatwell, Roger: "A Spectral-Syncretic Appraoch to Fascism", The Fascism Reader, Routledge, 2003, p 79. [2]
    ^ Turner, Stephen P., Käsler, Dirk: Sociology Responds to Fascism, Routledge. 2004, p 222
    ^ Griffin, Roger: "The Palingenetic Core of Fascism", Che cos'è il fascismo? Interpretazioni e prospettive di ricerche, Ideazione editrice, Rome, 2003 [3]
    ^ Stackleberg, Rodney: Hitler's Germany, Routeledge, 1999, p 3 [4]
    ^ Eatwell, Roger: "A 'Spectral-Syncretic Appraoch to Fascism', The Fascism Reader, Routledge, 2003 pp 71–80 [5]
    ^ Lipset, Seymour: "Fascism as Extremism of the Middle Class", The Fascism Reader, Routledge, 2003, pp 112–116
    ^ Weber, Eugen. Varieties of Fascism: Doctrines of Revolution in the Twentieth Century, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, [1964] 1982. p. 8.
    ^ Renton, David. ‘’Fascism: Theory and Practice’’, London: Pluto Press, 1999.
    ^ Jenkins, Brian (ed)). ‘’France in the Era of Fascism’’, Oxford: Beghahan Books, 2005, p 66.
    ^ Stackleberg, Roderick: Hitler's Germany, London: Routeledge, 1999, p 17
    ^ Stanley G. Payne, Fascism: Comparison and Definition. University of Wisconsin Press, 1983, p3.
    ^ Roger Griffin, Interregnum or Endgame?: Radical Right Thought in the ‘Post-fascist’ Era, The Journal of Political Ideologies, vol. 5, no. 2, July 2000, pp. 163–78
    ^ ‘Non Angeli, sed Angli: the neo-populist foreign policy of the "New" BNP', in Christina Liang (ed.) Europe for the Europeans: the foreign and security policy of the populist radical right (Ashgate, Hampshire,2007).uISBN 0754648516
    ^ Laqueur, Walter. ‘’Fascism Past, Present and Future’’, Oxford, OUP, 1997
    ^ Stanley G. Payne, Fascism: Comparison and Definition. University of Wisconsin Press. 1983. ISBN 9780299080648. p. 8 an 104
    ^ http://books.google.com/books...
    ^ Stanley G. Payne. Fascism: Comparison and Definition. University of Wisconsin Press. 1983. ISBN 9780299080648. p. 104
    ^ Lipset, Seymour. ‘’Political Man’’, New York, Anchor Books, 1960, p 141
    ^ Griffin, Roger. ‘’The Nature of Fascism’’, London, Routeledge, 1991
    ^ a b Griffin, Roger (1991). The Nature of Fascism. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0312071329.
    ^ Counts, George Sylvester (1970). Bolshevism, Fascism, and Capitalism: An Account of the Three Economic Systems. Ayer Publishing. ISBN 0836918665.
    ^ Gregor, A. James (2004). Giovanni Gentile: Philosopher Of Fascism. Transaction Pub. ISBN 0765805936.
    ^ a b c d Falasca-Zamponi, Simonetta. Fascist Spectacle: The Aesthetics of Power in Mussolini's Italy. University of California Press, 2000. Pp. 136.
    ^ Sternhell, Zeev, in Laqueur (ed.), Fascism: A Reader's Guide, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976, pp. 315–76
    ^ Mosse, G: "Toward a General Theory of Fascism", Fascism, ed. Griffin, Routeledge, 2003
    ^ a b Neocleous, Mark. Fascism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1997. Pp. 54.
    ^ Mussolini, Benito; Schnapp, Jeffery Thompson (ed.); Sears, Olivia E. (ed.); Stampino, Maria G. (ed.). "Address to the National Corporative Council (14 November 1933) and Senate Speech on the Bill Establishing the Corporations (abridged; 13 January 1934)". A Primer of Italian Fascism. University of Nebraska Press, 2000. Pp. 158–159.
    ^ [6] "a final indicator of the amibiguity between left and right extremes is that many militants switch sides, including the very founder of fascism, Benito Mussolini" Terrorism today, Christopher C. Harmon, Routledge, 2000 ISBN 0714649988, 9780714649986 316 pages
    ^ Neocleous, Mark. Fascism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1997. Pp. 58.
    ^ Eatwell, Roger: "A Spectral-Syncretic Appraoch to Fascism", The Fascism Reader, Routledge, 2003, pp 79–80
    ^ [7] Key concepts in politics, Andrew Heywood, Palgrave Macmillan, 2000 ISBN 0312233817, 9780312233815 281 pages page 28 "various horseshoe shaped and two dimensional spectrums have been developed to offer a more complete picture of ideological positions"
    ^ The Political Compass, Analysis
    ^ "George Orwell: ‘What is Fascism?’". Orwell.ru. 8 January 2008. http://orwell.ru/library/arti...
    ^ a b c Griffin, Roger (ed.). Linz, Juan. "Crisis of democracy after the First World War". International Fascism: Theories, Causes and the New Consensus. London: Arnold Publishers, 1998. Pp. 177–178.
    ^ Turner, Stephen P. (ed.); Käsler, Dirk (ed.). Sociology Responds to Fascism. Routledge. Pp. 128.
    ^ Griffin, Roger (ed.). Linz, Juan. "Crisis of democracy after the First World War". International Fascism: Theories, Causes and the New Consensus. London: Arnold Publishers, 1998. Pp. 176, 180.
    ^ a b Griffin, Roger (ed.). Linz, Juan. "Crisis of democracy after the First World War". International Fascism: Theories, Causes and the New Consensus. London: Arnold Publishers, 1998. Pp. 180.
    ^ Turner, Stephen P. (ed.); Käsler, Dirk (ed.). Sociology Responds to Fascism. Routledge. Pp. 128, 131.
    ^ Ebenstein, William. 1964. Today's Isms: Communism, Fascism, Capitalism, and Socialism. Prentice Hall (original from the University of Michigan). p. 178. [8]
    ^ Oliver Zimmer, Nationalism in Europe, 1890-1940 (London, Palgrave, 2003), chapter 4, pp. 80–107.
    ^ Laqueuer, Walter (1997). Fascism: Past, Present, Future. Oxford University Press. ISBN 019511793X. p. 223
    ^ "Fascism". Encyclopædia Britannica. 8 January 2008. http://search.eb.com/eb/artic...
    ^ Passmore, Kevin (2002). Fascism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0192801554. http://books.google.com/books...
    ^ Griffen, Roger (ed). Fascism. Oxford University Press, 1995. ISBN0192892495. p. 44.
    ^ Griffen, Roger (ed). Fascism. Oxford University Press, 1995. ISBN0192892495. p. 183.
    ^ "Goebbels on National-Socialism, Bolshevism and Democracy, Documents on International Affairs, vol. II, 1938, pp. 17–19. Accessed from the Jewish Virtual Library on February 5, 2009. [9]Joseph Goebbels describes the Nazis as being allied with countries which had "authoritarian nationalist" ideology and conception of the state.
    ^ Griffen, Roger (ed). Fascism. Oxford University Press, 1995. ISBN0192892495. p. 236.
    ^ [10]
    ^ Kershaw, Ian. 2000. Hitler, 1889-1936: Hubris. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 442. [11]
    ^ a b Payne, Stanley G. A History of Fascism, 1914-1945. Routledge, 1996. pp. 485–486.
    ^ Bollas, Christopher. 1993. Being a Character: Psychoanalysis and Self-Experience. Routledge. ISBN 0415088151, 9780415088152. p. 205. [12] Speaks of Italian Fascism supporting war and opposing pacifism.
    ^ Griffen, Roger (ed). Fascism. Oxford University Press, 1995. ISBN0192892495. p. 159.
    ^ Mussolini, Benito. 1935. Fascism: Doctrine and Institutions. Rome: Ardita Publishers. p 14.
    ^ Griffen, Roger (ed). 1995. "The Legal Basis of the Total State" – by Carl Schmitt. Fascism. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 72.
    ^ Griffen, Roger (ed). 1995. "The Need for a Totalitarian Japan" – by Nakano Seigo. Fascism. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 239.
    ^ Linz, Juan José. 2000. Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes: with a major new introduction. Lynne Rienner Publishers. p. 7. [13]
    ^ Maier, Hans. Totalitarianism and Political Religions. p. 6.[14] (Explains how Italian Fascism attempted to form a totalitarian state and how both proponents of fascism and opponents saw it as a totalitarian ideology.)
    ^ Sugar, Peter F; Hanak, Peter; Frank, Tibor. 1994. A History of Hungary. Indiana University Press. p. 331.[15]
    ^ Maier, Hans. Totalitarianism and Political Religions. pp. 10–11.[16] (Explains how Italian Fascism attempted to form a totalitarian state and how both proponents of fascism and opponents saw it as a totalitarian ideology.)
    ^ Pauley, Bruce F. 2003. Hitler, Stalin, and Mussolini: Totalitarianism in the Twentieth Century. Wheeling: Harlan Davidson, Inc.
    ^ a b Hawkins, Mike. Social Darwinism in European and American Thought, 1860-1945: Nature as Model and Nature as Threat. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. p. 285.
    ^ Griffen, Roger (ed.). Fascism. Oxford University Press, 1995. p. 59.
    ^ Hawkins, Mike. Social Darwinism in European and American Thought, 1860-1945: Nature as Model and Nature as Threat. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. pp. 282 and 284.
    ^ Hunt, Lynn, Thomas R. Martin, Barbara H. Rosenwein, R. Po-chia Hsia, and Bonnie G. Smith. The Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures. 2nd ed. Vol. C. Boston: Bedford St. Martins, 2005. p. 1064.
    ^ Enzo Traverso, Origins of Nazi Violence,New Press, New York, 2003; Dan Jakopovich, The Rising Threat of the BNP: the Underlying Causes, its Present Nature and Prospects, The Commune, September 2009.
    ^ Rimlinger, G.V. ‘’Social Policy Under German Fascism’’ in Stagnation and Renewal in Social Policy: The Rise and Fall of Policy Regimes by Martin Rein, Gosta Esping-Andersen, and Lee Rainwater, p. 61, M.E. Sharpe, 1987.
    ^ Gentile, Emilio. The Struggle for Modernity: Nationalism, Futurism, and Fascism. p. 86. [17]
    ^ Knight, Patricia Mussolini and Fascism, p. 72, Routledge, 2003.
    ^ Pauley, Bruce F. 2003. Hitler, Stalin, and Mussolini: Totalitarianism in the Twentieth Century Italy. Wheeling: Harlan Davidson, Inc. Pauley, p. 117.
    ^ Payne, Stanley G. 1996. A History of Fascism, 1914-1945. Routledge p. 220. [18]
    ^ Pauley, 2003. 117–119.
    ^ Griffin, Roger and Matthew Feldma Fascism: Critical Concepts in Political Science, 2004 Taylor and Francis
    ^ Evans, pg. 299
    ^ Domarus, Hitler II. 251–252
    ^ De Grazia, Victoria. 2002. How Fascism Ruled Women: Italy, 1922-1945. University of California Press. p. 55.
    ^ Henry Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide: From Euthanasia to the Final Solution (Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of Northern Carolina Press, 1995): 30.
    ^ McLaren, Angus, Twentieth-Century Sexuality, p. 139 Blackwell Publishing 1999
    ^ McLaren, Angus, Twentieth-Century Sexuality p. 139 Blackwell Publishing 1999
    ^ Friedlander, Henry (1995). The origins of Nazi genocide: from euthanasia to the final solution. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press. p. 30. ISBN 0-8078-4675-9. OCLC 60191622.
    ^ Proctor, Robert E. (1989). Racial Hygiene: Medicine Under the Nazis. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. p. 366. ISBN 0-674-74578-7. OCLC 20760638. "This emendation allowed abortion only if the woman granted permission, and only if the fetus was not old enough to survive outside the womb. It is unclear if either of these qualifications was enforced."
    ^ Arnot, Margaret; Cornelie Usborne (1999). Gender and Crime in Modern Europe. New York City: Routledge. p. 241. ISBN 1-85728-745-2. OCLC 249726924.
    ^ Proctor, Robert E. (1989). Racial Hygiene: Medicine Under the Nazis. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. pp. 122–123. ISBN 0-674-74578-7. OCLC 20760638. "Abortion, in other words, could be allowed if it was in the interest of racial hygiene… the Nazis did allow (and in some cases even required) abortions for women deemed racially inferior… On November 10, 1938, a Luneberg court declared abortion legal for Jews."
    ^ Tierney, Helen (1999). Women's studies encyclopedia. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 589. ISBN 0-313-31072-6. OCLC 38504469. "In 1939, it was announced that Jewish women could seek abortions, but non-Jewish women could not."
    ^ Griffin, Roger and Matthew Feldman [ Fascism: Critical Concepts in Political Science], p. 140, Taylor & Francis, 2004
    ^ Roger Griffin, The `post-fascism' of the Alleanza Nazionale: a case-study in ideological morphology, Journal of Political Ideologies, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1996
    ^ a b Gori, Gigliola. Italian fascism and the female body: sport, submissive women and strong mothers. Routledge, 2004. Pp. 58
    ^ Bollas, Christopher. 1993. Being a Character: Psychoanalysis and Self-Experience. Routledge. ISBN 0415088151, 9780415088152. p. 205.
    ^ McDonald, Harmish. 1999. Mussolini and Italian Fascism. Nelson Thornes. p. 27.
    ^ Durham, Martin. Women and fascism. Routledge, 2004. Pp. 15.
    ^ Durham, Martin. Women and fascism. Routledge, 1998. Pp. 15.
    ^ Mann, Michael. Fascists. Cambridge University Press, 2004. Pp. 101.
    ^ Gori, Gigliola. Italian fascism and the female body: sport, submissive women and strong mothers. Routledge, 2004. Pp. 144–145.
    ^ a b Gori, Gigliola. Italian fascism and the female body: sport, submissive women and strong mothers. Routledge, 2004. Pp. 145.
    ^ Gottlieb, Julie V., Linehan, Thomas P. The Culture of Fascism: Visions of the Far Right in Britain. p. 93.
    ^ a b Durham, Martin. Women and fascism. Routledge, 1998. Pp. 49.
    ^ Evans, 331–332
    ^ Ann Taylor Allen. Review of Dagmar Herzog, Sex after Fascism: Memory and Morality in Twentieth-Century Germay H-German, H-Net Reviews, January 2006
    ^ Hau, Michael, Sex after Fascism: Memory and Morality in Twentieth-Century Germany (review) Modernism/modernity – Volume 14, Number 2, April 2007, pp. 378–380, The Johns Hopkins University Press
    ^ McDonald, 1999. p. 27.
    ^ Gottlieb, Julie V., Linehan, Thomas P. p. 93.
    ^ Volovici, Nationalist Ideology, p. 98, citing N. Cainic, Ortodoxie şi etnocraţie, pp. 162–4.)
    ^ Evans, pg. 529
    ^ Ann Taylor Allen. Review of Dagmar Herzog, Sex after Fascism January 2006
    ^ Baumslag, Naomi; Pellgrino, Edmund D. 2005. Murderous medicine: Nazi doctors, human experimentation, and typhus. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 37. Claims Nazi scientific reasoning for racial policy was pseudoscience
    ^ Lancaster, Roger N.The Trouble of Nature: Sex in Science and Popular Culture. University of California Press. p. 10. Claims that Nazi scientific reasoning for anti-homosexual policy was pseudoscience
    ^ Philip Morgan, Fascism in Europe, 1919–1945, Taylor & Francis, 2003, p. 168.
    ^ The Routledge Companion to Fascism and the Far Right (2002) by Peter Jonathan Davies and Derek Lynch, Routledge (UK), ISBN 0415214947 p.143.
    ^ Payne, Stanley (1996). A History of Fascism. Routledge. ISBN 1857285956 p.10
    ^ Pauley. 2003. pp. 72, 84.
    ^ Pauley. 2003. p. 85.
    ^ Pauley. 2003. p. 86.
    ^ Payne, Stanley G. 1996. A History of Fascism, 1914-1945. Routledge. p. 64.
    ^ a b Griffen, Roger (editor). Chapter 8: "Extremism of the Centre" – by Seymour Martin Lipset. International Fascism: Theories, Causes and the New Consensus. Arnold Readers. p. 101.
    ^ Schachter, Gustav; Engelbourg, Saul. 2005. Cultural Continuity In Advanced Economies: Britain And The U.S. Versus Continental Europe. Published by Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 302. [19]
    ^ Falasca-Zamponi, Simonetta. Fascist Spectacle: The Aesthetics of Power in Mussolini's Italy. University of California Press, 2000. Pp. 137.
    ^ Mussolini, Benito; Schnapp, Jeffery Thompson (ed.); Sears, Olivia E. (ed.); Stampino, Maria G. (ed.). "Address to the National Corporative Council (14 November 1933) and Senate Speech on the Bill Establishing the Corporations (abridged; 13 January 1934)". A Primer of Italian Fascism. University of Nebraska Press, 2000. Pp. 158.
    ^ Cite Error: Invalid tag; no text was provided for refs named Mussolini.2C_Benito_1933_Pp._... see Help:Cite errors.
    ^ Neocleous, Mark. Fascism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1997. Pp. 47.
    ^ Peter Davies, Derek Lynch. The Routledge Companion to Fascism and the Far Right. Routledge, 2002. p. 103
    ^ The Fascism Reader by Aristotle A. Kallis.
    ^ Neocleous, Mark. Fascism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1997. Pp. 49.
    ^ Vincent, Andrew. Modern Political Ideologies. 3rd edition. John Wiley & Sons, 2009. Pp. 158–159.
    ^ Vincent, Andrew. Modern Political Ideologies. 3rd edition. John Wiley & Sons, 2009. Pp. 160.
    ^ David Baker, "The political economy of fascism: Myth or reality, or myth and reality?", New Political Economy, Volume 11, Issue 2 June 2006 , pages 227–250.
    ^ Philip Morgan, Fascism in Europe, 1919-1945, Taylor & Francis, 2003, p. 168.
    ^ Frank Bealey & others. Elements of Political Science. Edinburgh University Press, 1999, p. 202
    ^ Postone, Moishe. 1986. "Anti-Semitism and National Socialism." Germans & Jews Since the Holocaust: The Changing Situation in West Germany, ed. Anson Rabinbach and Jack Zipes. New York: Homes & Meier.
    ^ a b Stanislav Andreski, Wars, Revolutions, Dictatorships, Routledge 1992, page 64
    ^ James A. Gregor, The Search for Neofascism: The Use and Abuse of Social Science, Cambridge University Press, 2006, p. 7
    ^ Herbert Kitschelt, Anthony J. McGann. The Radical Right in Western Europe: a comparative analysis. 1996 University of Michigan Press. p. 30
    ^ Tibor Ivan Berend, An Economic History of Twentieth-Century Europe, Cambridge University Press, 2005, p. 93
    ^ Italian: Lo Stato corporativo considera l’iniziativa privata, nel campo della produzione, come lo strumento più utile ed efficiente della Nazione.
    ^ Richard Allen Epstein, Principles for a Free Society: Reconciling Individual Liberty With the Common Good, De Capo Press 2002, p. 168
    ^ Alexander J. De Grand, Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany, Routledge, 1995. p. 47.
    ^ De Grand, Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany, pp. 48–51.
    ^ Benito Mussolini, Richard Washburn Child, Max Ascoli, Richard Lamb. My rise and fall. Da Capo Press, 1998. p. 26.
    ^ a b Knight, Patricia, Mussolini and Fascism, p. 72, Routledge, 2003.
    ^ Pollard, John Francis, The Fascist Experience in Italy, p. 80 Routledge 1998
    ^ a b c Pauley, p113
    ^ de Grazia, Victoria. The Culture of Consent: Mass Organizations of Leisure in Fascist Italy. Cambridge, 1981.
    ^ Kallis, Aristotle, ed. (2003). The Fascism Reader, London: Routledge, pages 391–395.
    ^ Pauley, p113–114
    ^ Social Policy in the Third Reich. The Working Class and the 'National Community – Mason, T.W., Oxford: Berg. 1993, Page 160
    ^ Griffen, Roger; Feldman, Matthew. Fascism: Critical Concepts. p. 353. "When the Russian revolution occurred in 1917 and the 'Democratic' revolution spread after the First World War, anti-bolshevism and anti-egalitarianism rose as very strong "restoration movements" on the European scene. However, by the turn of that century no one could predict that fascism would become such a concrete, political reaction..."
    ^ Hawkins, Mike. Social Darwinism in European and American Thought, 1860-1945: Nature as Model and Nature as Threat. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. p. 285. "Conflict is in fact the basic law of life in all social organisms, as it is of all biological ones; societies are formed, gain strength, and move forwards through conflict; the healthiest and most vital of them assert themselves against the weakest ans less well adapted through conflict; the natural evolution of nations and races takes place through conflict." Alfredo Rocco, Italian Fascist.
    ^ Davies, Peter; Lynch, Derek. The Routledge Companion to Fascism and the Far Right. Routledge, 2004. pp. 103–104. "Fascist ideologies were also collectivist. individual freedom could only have meaning through the community or the nation."
    ^ Griffen, Roger (ed.). Fascism. Oxford University Press, 1995. p. 59. [When the] city dies, the nation—deprived of the young life—blood of new generations—is now made up of people who are old and degenerate and cannot defend itself against a younger people which launches an attack on the now unguarded frontiers[...] This will happen, and not just to cities and nations, but on an infinitely greater scale: the whole White race, the Western race can be submerged by other coloured races which are multiplying at a rate unknown in our race. – Benito Mussolini, 1928.
    ^ Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf, pgs. 27–28
    ^ Evans, pgs. 491–492
    ^ a b Neocleous, Mark. Fascism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1997. Pp. 35.
    ^ Benito Mussolini, Richard Washburn Child, Max Ascoli, Richard Lamb. My rise and fall. Da Capo Press, 1998. pp. 2, 38.
    ^ Griffen, Roger (ed.). Fascism. Oxford University Press, 1995. p. 59.
    ^ Benito Mussolini, Richard Washburn Child, Max Ascoli, Richard Lamb. My rise and fall. Da Capo Press, 1998. p. 106.
    ^ Benito Mussolini, Richard Washburn Child, Max Ascoli, Richard Lamb. My rise and fall. Da Capo Press, 1998. pp. 105–106.
    ^ Burgwyn, H. James. Italian foreign policy in the interwar period, 1918-1940. p. 43. Greenwood Publishing Group, 1997.
    ^ Montagu, Ashley (1997). Man's Most Dangerous Myth: The Fallacy of Race. Rowman Altamira. ISBN 0803946481. http://books.google.com/books...
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    ^ Turban for the Crown : The Islamic Revolution in Iran by Said Amir Arjomand. pp. 204–9.
    ^ Payne, Stanley, A History of Fascism, 1914-1945], p. 9, Routledge 1996.
    ^ a b Payne, Stanley A History of Fascism, 1914-1945, p. 9, Routledge 1996.
    ^ Laqueur, Walter; Fascism: Past, Present, Future] p. 42 1996 Oxford University Press.]
    ^ Laqueur, Walter, Fascism: Past, Present, Future pp. 31, 42, 1996 Oxford University Press.]
    ^ a b SHARKEY, JOE Word for Word/The Case Against the Nazis; How Hitler's Forces Planned To Destroy German Christianity, New York Times, January 13, 2002
    ^ The Nazi Master Plan: The Persecution of the Christian Churches, Rutgers Journal of Law and Religion, Winter 2001, publishing evidence compiled by the O.S.S. for the Nuremberg war-crimes trials of 1945 and 1946
    ^ The Religious Affiliation of Adolf Hitler Adherents.com
    ^ Krauze, Enrique, THE TROUBLING ROOTS OF MEXICO'S LÓPEZ OBRADOR: Tropical Messiah, The New Republic June 19, 2006.
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    ^ Millan, Verna Carleton, Mexico Reborn, p. 101, 1939 Riverside Press.
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    ^ ROCHAT Giorgio, Regime fascista e chiese evangeliche, Torino, Claudiana, 1990.
    ^ BRACCO, Roberto. Persecuzione in Italia . Rome, n.d.
    ^ ROCHAT, Giorgio. Regime fascista e chiese evangeliche. Torino: Claudiana, 1990.
    ^ Laqueur, Walter, Fascism: Past, Present, Future p. 148 1996 Oxford University Press.]
    ^ source: Weber, E. "Rumania" in H. Rogger and E. Weber, eds., The European Right: A Historical Profile. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1965.
    ^ Nagy-Talavera, N. M. The Green Shirts and the Others. A History of Fascism in Hungary and Rumania. Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 1970; pp. 247, 266–70.
    ^ Turban for the Crown : The Islamic Revolution in Iran by Said Amir Arjomand. pp. 208–9.
    ^ Hilton, S. "Acao Integralista Brasiliera: Fascism in Brazil, 1932-38" Lusa Brazilian Review, v.9, n.2, 1972: 12.
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    ^ Payne, Stanley A History of Fascism, 1914-1945, pp. 345–346, Routledge 1996.
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    ^ a b Chase, Allan. Falange: The Axis Secret Army in the Americas. G.P. Putnam's Sons. http://books.google.com/books...
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    ^ a b Griffin, Roger and Matthew Feldman Fascism: Critical Concepts in Political Science p.8, 2004 Taylor and Francis
    ^ Davies, Peter Jonathan and Derek Lynch The Routledge Companion to Fascism and the Far Right. p. 3, 2002 Routledge
    ^ Davies, Peter Jonathan and Derek Lynch The Routledge Companion to Fascism and the Far Right. p. 326, 2002 Routledge
    ^ Davies, Peter Jonathan and Derek Lynch The Routledge Companion to Fascism and the Far Right. p. 255, 2002 Routledge
    ^ a b Tsuzuki, Chushichi. The Pursuit of Power in Japan 1825-1995. Oxford University Press, 2000. P. 244.
    ^ a b Nish, Ian. Japanese Foreign Policy. Routledge, 2001. P. 234.
    ^ Tsuzuki, Chushichi. The Pursuit of Power in Japan 1825-1995. Oxford University Press, 2000. P. 245.

    Primary sources
    Gentile, Giovanni. 1932. The Doctrine of Fascism. Enciclopedia Italiana.
    de Oliveira Salazar, António. 1939. Doctrine and Action: Internal and Foreign Policy of the New Portugal, 1928-1939. Faber and Faber.
    Mosley, Sir Oswald. 1968. My Life. Nelson Publications.
    de Rivera, José Antonio Primo. 1971. Textos de Doctrina Politica. Madrid.
    Mussolini, Benito. 1998. My Rise And Fall . Da Capo Press. ISBN 0306808641
    Ciano, Galezzo. 2001. The Ciano Diaries, 1939—1943. Simon Publications. ISBN 1931313741
    Mussolini, Benito. 2006. My Autobiography: With "The Political and Social Doctrine of Fascism". Dover Publications. ISBN 0486447774

    Secondary sources
    Evans, Richard J, The Third Reich in Power: 1933-1939, The Penguin Press HC, 2005
    De Felice, Renzo. 1976. Fascism: An Informal Introduction to Its Theory and Practice. Transaction Books. ISBN 0878556192
    De Felice, Renzo. 1977. Interpretations of Fascism. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674459628.
    Ben-Am, Shlomo. 1983. Fascism from Above: The Dictatorship of Primo de Rivera in Spain, 1923-1930. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198225962
    Payne, Stanley G. 1987. The Franco Regime, 1936-1975. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0299110702
    Vatikiotis, Panayiotis J. 1988. Popular Autocracy in Greece, 1936-1941: A Political Biography of General Ioannis Metaxas. Routledge. ISBN 0714648698
    Payne, Stanley G. 1995. A History of Fascism, 1914-45. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0299148742
    Costa Pinto, António. 1995. Salazar's Dictatorship and European Fascism: Problems of Interpretation. Social Science Monographs. ISBN 0880339683
    Griffiths, Richard. 2001. An Intelligent Person's Guide to Fascism. Duckworth. ISBN 0715629182
    Lewis, Paul H. 2002. Latin Fascist Elites: The Mussolini, Franco, and Salazar Regimes. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 027597880X
    Payne, Stanley G. 2003. Falange: A History of Spanish Fascism. Textbook Publishers. ISBN 0758134452
    Paxton, Robert O. 2005. The Anatomy of Fascism. Vintage Books. ISBN 1400033918
    Eatwell, Roger. 1996. Fascism: A History. New York: Allen Lane.
    Nolte, Ernst The Three Faces Of Fascism: Action Française, Italian Fascism, National Socialism, translated from the German by Leila Vennewitz, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1965.
    Reich, Wilhelm. 1970. The Mass Psychology of Fascism. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux.
    Seldes, George. 1935. Sawdust Caesar: The Untold History of Mussolini and Fascism. New York and London: Harper and Brothers.
    Alfred Sohn-Rethel Economy and Class Structure of German Fascism, London, CSE Bks, 1978 ISBN 0906336007
    Kallis, Aristotle A. ," To Expand or Not to Expand? Territory, Generic Fascism and the Quest for an 'Ideal Fatherland'" Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 38, No. 2. (Apr., 2003), pp. 237–260.
    Fritzsche, Peter. 1990. Rehearsals for Fascism: Populism and Political Mobilization in Weimar Germany. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-505780-5
    Griffin, Roger. 2000. "Revolution from the Right: Fascism," chapter in David Parker (ed.) Revolutions and the Revolutionary Tradition in the West 1560-1991, Routledge, London.
    Laqueur, Walter. 1966. Fascism: Past, Present, Future, New York: Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-19-511793-X
    Sauer, Wolfgang "National Socialism: totalitarianism or fascism?" pages 404–424 from The American Historical Review, Volume 73, Issue #2, December 1967.
    Sternhell, Zeev with Mario Sznajder and Maia Asheri. [1989] 1994. The Birth of Fascist Ideology, From Cultural Rebellion to Political Revolution., Trans. David Maisei. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Baker, David. "The political economy of fascism: Myth or reality, or myth and reality?" New Political Economy, Volume 11, Issue 2 June 2006 , pages 227 – 250
    Griffin, Roger. 1991. The Nature of Fascism. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
    Weber, Eugen. [1964] 1985. Varieties of Fascism: Doctrines of Revolution in the Twentieth Century, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, (Contains chapters on fascist movements in different countries.)

    External links Look up fascism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
    Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Fascism
    Fascism portal
    The Doctrine of Fascism



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    Translations: Fascism
    Top
    Home > Library > Literature & Language > TranslationsDansk (Danish)
    n. - fascisme

    Nederlands (Dutch)
    fascisme

    Français (French)
    n. - fascisme

    Deutsch (German)
    n. - Faschismus

    Ελληνική (Greek)
    n. - φασισμός

    Italiano (Italian)
    fascismo

    Português (Portuguese)
    n. - fascismo (m)

    Русский (Russian)
    фашизм

    Español (Spanish)
    n. - fascismo

    Svenska (Swedish)
    n. - fascism


    中文(简体)(Chinese (Simplified))
    法西斯主义, 极端的国家主义

    中文(繁體)(Chinese (Traditional))
    n. - 法西斯主義, 極端的國家主義

    한국어 (Korean)
    n. - 이탈리아 무솔리니 독재 사회주의, (이탈리아) 파시스트 운동

    日本語 (Japanese)
    n. - ファシズム

    العربيه (Arabic)
    ‏(الاسم) الفاشيه‏

    עברית (Hebrew)
    n. - ‮פשיזם‬


    If you are unable to view some languages clearly, click here.


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    (more)
  • trader Fay 2009/09/13 20:07:08
    trader
    +2
    Nice try but you are wrong. De Leon has just tried to bring his agenda into a favorable light.
  • Muffy Fay 2009/09/13 20:54:48
    Muffy
    +4
    So when the Nazis called themselves the National Socialists, they meant it in the most humane, civil rights kind of way?
  • Fay Muffy 2009/09/14 00:20:44
    Fay
    don't be stupid, read it all.
  • Muffy Fay 2009/09/14 02:05:41 (edited)
    Muffy
    +3
    I know what socialism is and I know that Hitler's regime called themselves the National Socialist Party, because it is exactly what they were. You are not going to "sell" socialism to people who love their freedom.
    P.S.
    Please don't respond to me if you are going to engage in name calling.
  • chorn Fay 2009/09/14 00:09:02
    chorn
    +4
    What dictionary do you use??????
    "Socialism does not mean government or state ownership".
  • Fay chorn 2009/09/14 00:20:50 (edited)
    Fay
    Read the whole thing the source is posted also, which is more than your people seem to do.
  • chorn Fay 2009/09/14 00:25:57
    chorn
    +3
    If that ain't Socialism or Fashism, I don't know what is. You can double talk like 0bama all you want, but you can't change the fact that it is not what this country is all about.
  • Fay chorn 2009/09/14 00:38:10
    Fay
    What, you can't read????? God, I hate stupid people, I am done. You are just so narrow minded you won't even read the truth. That is why we will win again in 2010 and 2012.
  • chorn Fay 2009/09/14 00:41:10
    chorn
    +3
    You and 0bama have no clue what truth is. Your comment made no sense. It was just a lefty rage.
  • Fay trader 2009/09/13 19:55:04
    Fay
    if you are going to do something do it right. Below is the definitions, complete with the source which you did not do.
  • trader Fay 2009/09/13 20:08:23
    trader
    +3
    Did not do it because it would be a waste of time on you people. You can infer what ever into that comment because i know you will anyway.
  • Fay trader 2009/09/14 00:22:20
    Fay
    I put the source you moron, go to the source and read it then, word for word.
  • trader Fay 2009/09/14 05:24:59
    trader
    +2
    lmaoau
  • GeorgeR Fay 2009/09/13 17:41:49
  • Fay GeorgeR 2009/09/13 17:45:23
    Fay
    Very sad, uh, what a waste. Thanks.
  • chorn GeorgeR 2009/09/14 00:15:19 (edited)
    chorn
    +5
    You should look in the mirror. What you are describing is a lefty. It's like the old country song: I looked in the mirror and what did I see?????The answer staring back at me.

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